Reading Comprehension Questions for Banking Exams
Reading Comprehension Questions for Banking Exams
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Reading Comprehension Questions

Reading Comprehension Practice Test. Reading Comprehension based on different editorial like; The Hindu, Economic Times, Times of India, etc. If you are preparing for Banking and Insurance Exams, you will come across Reading Comprehension Questions in the English language section. Here we are providing you English Reading Comprehension Questions for Banking Exams, based on the latest pattern of your daily practice.

Reading Comprehension Questions will help you learn concepts on important topics in English Section. This “English Reading Comprehension Test for Banking Exams” is also important for other banking exams such as SBI Clerk, IDBI Executive and Syndicate PO, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS RRB Officer, IBPS RRB Office Assistant, IBPS SO, SBI SO and other competitive exams.

Reading Comprehension Questions for Banking Exams | Set –13


Direction: Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

After the recent Assembly elections, the new governments in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh announced farm loan waivers, a key promise. Last year, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu announced waivers as farmers were in distress. Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Haryana are likely to announce sops ahead of elections. According to SBI Research, around ₹70,000 crore will be spent on farm debt waivers till May 2019. The demand for farm loan waivers has been growing, but this “’populist” measure alone cannot be a permanent solution to mounting agrarian distress, according to experts. Since the post-reforms policy regime in 1991, agriculture has been facing multiple crises. The rising pressure of population on land and agriculture, besides sluggishness in the shifting of workforce away from agriculture, has adversely affected small and marginal farmers, say agriculture experts and economists.

Rising costs, drop in income and increasing incidence of indebtedness among small and marginal farmers manifested in a spate of suicides over the years. Experts believe it is the responsibility of the Union government to waive farm loans, but insist that it is only a “stop-gap” arrangement. They argue that until policies are not modified in favour of farmers to address their risks related to production, weather-disaster, price, credit and market, the loan waiver will become a periodical instrument for temporary relief. A large number of small and marginal farmers are distressed as the current system of market institution doubly squeezes them, in input as well as output.

In the backdrop of the ongoing debate on farm loan waivers, the NITI Ayog, the government’s policy think tank, recently pointed out that waiving loans is not a lasting answer to the problem of agrarian distress as this step only helps a small number of farmers. According to agriculture policy expert and NITI Aayog member Ramesh Chand, the number of farmers, especially the small and marginal who avail themselves of institutional loans, are very few and this is the reason that even after spending huge sums of money on loan waivers not even half the farmers are benefiting. In some of the States, not even 25% of farmers get loans from institutional sources. A NITI Aayog study had also highlighted the fact that in some States, about three-fourths of the farm loans were being used for consumption instead of meeting agricultural needs, Professor Chand says. The Reserve Bank of India’s study, ‘State Finances: A Study of Budgets,’ released earlier this year, analysed the previous experiences with loan-waiver schemes in various States and concluded that “debt relief helps in reducing household debt but there appears to be no evidence of increase in investment and productivity of beneficiary households.”

As a short-term measure, farmers need to be freed of the tyranny of the middlemen by reforming the rent-seeking, anti-farmer commission agent (arthiya) system. The inter-locking of the credit and the output markets is a major factor for the crises of indebtedness. The system of making payments through the commission agent needs to be dismantled to break the credit-crop nexus. Lakhwinder Singh, an agriculture expert and a professor of economics at Punjabi University, Patiala, says that for a permanent solution to agrarian distress, the government should give agro-processing industry a policy push to pull rural people out of agriculture. In the long run, there’s an urgent need for integration of agriculture with industry, and that too with the involvement of the local workforce in such a manner that surpluses should be invested locally. “The subsidies and tax concessions which have been offered or given to the corporate sector should be given to rural entrepreneurs who are willing to start manufacturing firms that will process local raw materials and employ rural labour. The transformation is possible if primary producers are integrated with both manufacturing and marketing activities for reaping surpluses generated by them,” he says.

1. What has been the solution suggested by Lakhwinder Singh to overcome the agrarian distress?

A. A push to agro-processing industry
B. Amalgamation of agriculture and industry
C. Involving rural workforce in agricultural products based industries
D.  Both (A) & (B)
E. All (A), (B), (C)

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Correct Answer: E. All (A), (B), (C)

Explanation: To validate the answer, refer to the last paragraph, which mentions, “Lakhwinder Singh, an agriculture expert and a professor of economics at Punjabi University, Patiala, says that for a permanent solution to agrarian distress, the government should give agro-processing industry a policy push to pull rural people out of agriculture. In the long run, there’s an urgent need for integration of agriculture with industry, and that too with the involvement of the local workforce in such a manner that surpluses should be invested locally.” From the quoted text we can infer that all the given statements are correct in context of the given passage.

2. What have been the reasons cited by Ramesh Chand for the non-achievement of desired results by the loan waiver schemes?
(i) lack of infrastructure for the upgradation of agricultural work
(ii) small and marginal farmers opting for institutional loans are negligible
(iii) a significant share of agricultural loans was diverted for personal use

A. Both (i) & (iii)
B. Only (i)
C. Only (ii)
D. Both (ii) & (iii)
E. All (i), (ii), (iii)

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Correct Answer – D. Both (ii) & (iii)

Explanation:To validate the answer, refer to the third paragraph, which mentions, “According to agriculture policy expert and NITI Aayog member Ramesh Chand, the number of farmers, especially the small and marginal who avail themselves of institutional loans, are very few and this is the reason that even after spending huge sums of money on loan waivers not even half the farmers are benefiting. In some of the States, not even 25% of farmers get loans from institutional sources. A NITI Aayog study had also highlighted the fact that in some States, about three-fourths of the farm loans were being used for consumption instead of meeting agricultural needs, Professor Chand says.” Here, statements (ii) & (iii) clearly justify the quoted text.

3. What have been the various forms of crises faced by agriculture post 1991 policy reforms?

A. a proper irrigation system has not been set in place
B. the movement of workforce to sectors other than agriculture has been slow
C. population pressure on land and agriculture has tremendously increased
D. both (A) & (C)
E. both (B) & (C)

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Correct Answer – E. both (B) & (C)

Explanation: To validate the answer, refer to the last few lines of the first paragraph, which mentions, “Since the post-reforms policy regime in 1991, agriculture has been facing multiple crises. The rising pressure of population on land and agriculture, besides sluggishness in the shifting of workforce away from agriculture, has adversely affected small and marginal farmers, say agriculture experts and economists.” Here both the statements (a) and (c) support the quoted text.

4. What have been the short-term measures suggested by the writer for addressing the agricultural issues?
(i) emancipating the farmers from the brutality of middlemen
(ii) land should not only be a productive asset but also a source of security and status
(iii) developing a pro-farmer rental system

A. Only (iii)
B. Only (ii)
C. Only (i)
D. both (i) and (iii)
E. all (i), (ii), (iii)

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Correct Answer – D. both (i) and (iii)

Explanation: To validate the answer, refer to the first line of the last paragraph, which mentions, “As a short-term measure, farmers need to be freed of the tyranny of the middlemen by reforming the rent-seeking, anti-farmer commission agent (arthiya) system.” The quoted text can be inferred from the statements given in options (i) and (iii).

5. Why do experts believe that farm loan waivers are “stop-gap” measures?

A. Other serious risks related to agriculture remain unaddressed during the policy formations
B.  Moneylenders and traders remained a major source of credit for affluent farmers
C. Farmers remain unexposed to gender friendly farm machines
D. Farmers still have to work for long and lengthy duration
E. None of these

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Correct Answer – A. Other serious risks related to agriculture remain unaddressed during the policy formations

Explanation: To validate the answer, refer to the second paragraph of the passage given above, which states, “They argue that until policies are not modified in favour of farmers to address their risks related to production, weather-disaster, price, credit and market, the loan waiver will become a periodical instrument for temporary relief.”

6. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

DEMAND

A. pronouncement
B. clamour
C. autarky
D. manumission
E. None of these

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Correct Answer – B. clamour

Explanation: Among the given options, “clamour” which means “make a vehement protest or demand” is synonymous with “demand”.

  • Autarky: economic independence or self-sufficiency.
  • Manumission: release from slavery.
  • Pronouncement: a formal or authoritative announcement or declaration

7. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

MODIFIED

A. tweaked
B. enervate
C. reprimand
D. ventilate
E. None of these

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Correct Answer – A. tweaked

Explanation: Among the given options, “tweaked” which means “improve (a mechanism or system) by making fine adjustments to it” is synonymous with “modified”.

  • Reprimand [verb] means ‘a formal expression of disapproval’;
  • Enervate [verb] means ‘to sap energy from’
  • Ventilate [verb] means cause air to enter and circulate freely in (a room, building, etc.)

8. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

DISTRESS

A. vacillation
B. affluence
C. lethargy
D. tribulation
E. None of these

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Correct Answer – D. tribulation

Explanation: Among the given options, “tribulation” which means “” is synonymous with “distress”.

  • Lethargy [noun] means ‘a lack of energy and enthusiasm’;
  • Affluence [noun] means ‘the state of having a great deal of money; wealth
  • Vacillation [noun] means the inability to decide between different opinions or actions; indecision

9. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in the meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

ANALYSED

A. wart
B. expunge
C. peruse
D. alleviate
E. None of these

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Correct Answer – C. peruse

Explanation: Among the given options, “peruse” which means “” is synonymous with “analysed”.

  • Alleviate means make (suffering, deficiency, or a problem) less severe.
  • Wart [noun] means ‘an undesirable or disfiguring feature’
  • Expunge means ‘obliterate or remove completely’

10. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

PERMANENT

A. fleeting
B. enigmatic
C. epitomizing
D. exemplifying
E. None of these

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Correct Answer – A. fleeting

Explanation: Here, “fleeting” which means “lasting for a very short time” is opposite to permanent.

  • Exemplifying means be a typical example of.
  • Epitomizing means be a perfect example of.
  • Enigmatic means difficult to interpret or understand; mysterious

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