Read Indian History: – Sikh and Maratha after Mughals

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Indian History:

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In Indian history we have completed India in 18th Century, India after Mughals, Succession states after mughal and in this very series next is  Sikh and Maratha after Mughals


Sikhs

  • Sikhism transformed into a militant religion during Guru Hargobind (1606-45), the sixth guru.
  • Guru Gobind Singh waged constant war against the armies of Aurangzeb and the hill rajas
  • Banda Singh (Banda Bahadur) succeeded Guru Gobind Singh (1708)
    • He struggled with the Mughal army for 8 years
    • Put to death in 1715
  • Banda Bahadur failed because
    • Mughal centre was still strong
    • Upper classes and castes of Punjab joined forces against him
    • He could not integrate all the anti-Mughal forces because of his religious bigotry
  • With the withdrawal of Abdali Sikhs were again resurgent in Punjab,
  • Between 1765 and 1800 they brought the Punjab and Jammu under their control
  • They were organized into 12 misls
  • Ranjit Singh
    • Chief of the Sukerchakia Misl
    • Captured Lahore (1799) and Amritsar (1802)
    • Conquered Kashmir, Peshawar and Multan
    • Possessed the second best army in Asia
    • Tolerant and liberal
    • Fakir Azizuddin and Dewan Dina Nath were his important ministers
    • “known to step down from his throne to wipe the dust off the feet of Muslim mendicants with his long grey beard”
    • Negative point: He did not remove the threat of British. He only left it over to his successors. And so, after his death, when his kingdom was torn by intense internal struggle, English conquered it.

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Marathas

  • Maratha Families
    • Peshwa – Pune
    • Gaekwad – Baroda
    • Bhosle – Nagpur
    • Holkar – Indore
    • Scindia – Gwalior
  • The most powerful of the succession states
  • Could not fill the political vacuum because
    • Maratha Sardars lacked unity
    • Lacked the outlook and programme which were necessary for founding an all-India empire

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  • Shahuji
    • Son of Sambhaji
    • Imprisoned by Aurungzeb
    • Released in 1707
    • Civil war between Shahu and his aunt Tarabai who ruled in the name of her infant son Shivaji II
    • This led to new form of  Maratha leadership,  as the era of Peshwa leadership
  • Balaji Vishwnath
    • 1713: Peshwa of King Shahu
    • Induced Zulfikar Khan to grant the chauth and sardeshmukhi of the Deccan
    • Helped the Saiyid brothers in overthrowing Farukh Siyar
    • Maratha sardars were becoming individually strong but collectively weak
    • Died in 1720. Succeeded by his son Baji Rao I
  • Baji Rao I
    • the greatest extent of guerrilla tactics after Shivaji
    • Vast areas ceded by the Mughals
    • Marathas won control over Malwa, Gujarat and parts of Bundelkhand
    • Rivalry with Nizam ul Mulk
    • Compelled the Nizam to grant chauth and sardeshmukhi of the Deccan provinces
    • 1733: Campaign against Sidis of Janjira and the Portuguese (Salsette and Bassein)
    • Died in 1740
    • Captured territories but failed to lay the foundations of an empire
    • Succeeded by Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb)

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  • Balaji Baji Rao (1740-61)
    • Shahu died in 1749. Peshwas became the de facto rulers
    • Shifted the capital to Poona
    • Captured Orissa
    • Mysore forced to pay tributes
    • In 1752, helped Imad-ul-Mulk to become the wazir
    • Brought Punjab under their control and expelled the agent of Ahmad Shah Abdali
      • This led AS Abdali to come to India to settle accounts with Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat
    • Third Battle of Panipat
      • An alliance was made of Ahmad Shah Abdali Najib-ud-daulah of Rohilkhand and Shuja-ud-daulah of Awadh.

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