Agro-Climate Regions of India
The agro-climatic regions were demarcAgro-Climate Regions of Indiaated to gain the enhanced agricultural productivity through the suitable cropping congenial to the temp, rainfall, humidity, drainage and soil types conditions. The basic concept of agro climatic divisions was desired sat the planning regions produced by an Indian Economist V. Nath in 1951.In 1964 the planning commission of government of India adopted the scheme for agro climatic regions. There one 15 agro-climatic regions in India.
Agro-Climate Regions of India
India is a country of great geographical diversity. The variations in its terrain, temperature, rainfall and soils have closely influenced the cropping patterns and other agricultural activities. There are following Agro-Climate Regions of India-
- The northwestern mountainous region
- The northeastern region
- The Sutlej-Yamuna plain
- The Upper Ganga plain
- The Middle Ganga plain
- The Lower Ganga plain
- The southeastern plateau
- The Aravalli-Malwa upland
- The Plateau of Maharashtra
- The Deccan interior
- The Eastern coast
- The Western coast
- The Gujarat region
- The western Rajasthan
- The Islands of Andaman & Nicobar
Important Agro-Climate Regions of India
Western Himalayan Agro-Climatic Regions
Includes J & K. M.P. and Uttrakhand over 245,000 sq kms area. River Indus, River Sutluj, River Jhelum, River Chenab, River Ravi, River Bhagirathi, River Alaknanda, River Yamuna and Hed Ward of River Ganga are the major drainage. Average summer temp rain between 30-250 C, the average water temp varies between 5 to -50 C, white average annual rainfall varies between 100 cms to 200 cms. About 45% land is covered by forest and 18% under agriculture. They have orchards rice and maize.
Eastern Himalayan Regions
Covers Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam Arunachal and Hills of West Bengal, River Tista, River Sankash, River Manar, River Kamang, River Sobansiri, River Debang and River Dihang are the major drainage, Average summer temp 20-300 C, Average winter temp 12-200 C. Rain fall 135-400 cms. 25% forest 19 of land under agriculture. Jed is the principle crop total area 274,000 sq kms.
Sutlej Pain and Upper Ganga Valley Region
Includes Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Chandigarh and Western U.P. River Sutlej, River Beas, River Ganga and River Yamuna are the major drainage. Average summer temp 26-420 C average winter temp 7-180 C. Average rainfall 30 to 125 cms 75% land under agricultures and 4.5% land under forest wheat is the dominating crop. 143000 sq kms.
Middle Ganga Valley Region
Covers eastern U.P. and Bihar, River Ganga, Ghagra, River Rosi and River Sone are the major drainage 164,000 sq kms total area. Average summer temp 26-410 C winter temp 9-240 C. 100-200 cms average annual rain fall 63% land is under agriculture and 8% under forest crop – wheat and rice.
Lower Ganga Valley and Delta Region
Covers plain of West Bengal, parts of Jharkhand, Ganga sagar and delta region area 69,000 sq kms. Average summer temp. 26-400 C, Average winter temp 10-240 C average rain fall 80-150 cms. 65% land under cultivation and 11% under forest R. Damodar, R. Hoogli are the major drainage. Rice and Jute are the major crops.
Trans Ganga Plain Region
Covers slopes of Siwalik valleys, Bhabar and Tarai region, and 116,000 sq kms area. Ram Ganga, Gomti, Ganga and Yamuna are the major drainage, average summer temp 26-340 C, average winter temp 7-230 C rainfall 80-1500 cms. 81% land under agriculture 3-2% forest, crops – rice, maize, sugarcane.
Eastern Plateau and Hills Region
Covers hills and plateaus of the Far East India Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizo, Manipur, Wagoland and Brahmaputra Valley 395,000 sq kms area. River Dhansiri, River Gomati, River Surma are the major drainage. Average summer temp 24-340 C. Average winter 150 to 220 C rainfall 200-400 cms. 35% land under cultivation and 35% under forest. Maize, Rice, Tea, are the major crops. This region is affected by Jhum (shifting) cultivation.
Central Plateau and Hills Region
Covers plateau of Chota Nagpur, Chattisgarh, Bagelkhand Telangana and Bastar Plateau. 37000 sq kms area River Damodar, River Mahanadi, major drainage. Average summer temp 267400 C, Average winter temp 7-240 C rainfall 50-160 cms 45% under agriculture 14% forest, Maize, rice are the major crops.
Western Plateau and Hills Region
Covers lava plateau the Malwa, Bundelkhand plains and Hills such as Satpura & Vindyachal 331000 sq kms area, Narmada, Tapti, Chanbal and Mahi are the major drainage. 24-410 average summer 8-240 average winter. 60-120 cms average rainfall, 60% land under cultivation, 12% under forest cotton, soyabeans, pulses and wheat are the major crops.
Southern Plateau and Hills Region
Covers plateau of Mysore, Malnad & Maidan, Tamil Nadu & W. Ghats 395,000 sq kms area. River Savarmati, River Koyna, River Ghat Pratiha, River Mal Prabha, major chain age 24-350 C average summer, 15-22 average winter, 50-100 cms average rainfall, 60% under cultivation, 12% forest, Rayl, Jowar, Bajra, cotton are the major crops.
Eastern Coastal Plain & Hills
Covers coromamandel & North ciscoo coast & Eastern Ghats, 197,000 sq kms, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, River Kavri – major drainage, 26-380 C temperature summer, 20-300 C average winter, 50-100 cms rainfall, 43% under agriculture, 18% forest, rice is the dominating gop.
Western Coastal Plain & Hills
Covers konkan, Malabar & W. Ghats, 117000 sq kms area, average summer temperature 26-320 C, average winter temperature 20-290 C. rainfall 200-250 cms, 37% land under agriculture 29% under forest, coconut, rubber, tea, coffee & spices are the major crops, River Periyar is the major Drainage.
Includes plains & hills of Gujarat, 196,00 sq kms satbarmati, Mhai Luni River Narmada & Tapti are the major drainage. 26-420 C summer temperature, 6-240 C average winter, 15-150 cms average, annual rainfall, 51% under cultivation & 11% under forest colon, wheat, Groundnut as a major crop.
Western Day Region
Includes Raj-Har borcles, Fast Aravalli, Thar diseit & West part of Gujarat, 175000 sq kms. River Luni & R, Banas are the major drainage. 26-450 C average summer 5-200 average winter, 15-30 cms average rainfall 47% under cultivation, 1.2% under forest wheat is the dominating crop Bajra cotton are the other crops.
Include A & N & Lakshaweep 8.5000 sq kms average summer 300 C average winter -260 C, rainfall more dhari 200 cms, 4% under agriculture, 88% under forest, maize & sugarcane, rice-coconut are grown in Andaman, While Lakshweep has only fishing.
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