English Reading Comprehension Questions

Reading Comprehension Practice Test. Reading Comprehension based on different editorial like; The Hindu, Economics Times, Times of India etc.  Welcome to the Let’s Study Together online English section. If you are preparing for Banking and Insurance Exams, you will come across Reading Comprehension Test in English language section. Here we are providing you English Reading Comprehension Test for Banking Exams , based on the latest pattern of your daily practice.

Reading Comprehension Test will help you learn concepts on important topics in English Section. This “English Reading Comprehension Test for Banking Exams” is also important for other banking exams such as SBI Clerk, IDBI Executive and Syndicate PO, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS RRB Officer, IBPS RRB Office Assistant, IBPS SO, SBI SO and other competitive exams.

Reading Comprehension Test for Banking Exams | Set – 4

Directions:(1-5) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.

In recent times, when our most fundamental understanding of concepts of law and its interplay with perceptions of justice, morality, humanism, freedom, honour and virtue are being questioned with fierce candour in the media and every conceivable public space, legal philosophy is all we have to guide our path. Sadly, a country that once based its laws on the commentaries of legal philosophers has allowed that tribe to become almost extinct.

In a society that seeks to rest its foundations in justice, a legal philosopher performs three essential functions. First, he expounds the relationship between law, justice and other concepts so fundamental to explain the nature of human existence in society. Second, he critically examines existing legal philosophies. Third, he examines decisions of courts and legislations from the point of philosophic principles.

Through the centuries, many legal philosophers left their indelible mark on shaping institutions of governance. Many of the systems of governance and rule of law as are familiar today have been developed by applying principles expounded by legal philosophers. To Aristotle, justice was all about “giving every person his due” and the purpose of law was to develop a just society that made this possible. Kautilya’s Arthashastra postulated that the king was the fountainhead of justice but with the limitation that even he was obliged to rule according to the Dharmashastras. William Blackstone, through his book, Commentaries on the Laws of England, guided the growth and development of English law in no small measure; John Austin popularised the theory that law was command of the sovereign made credible by threats of punishment for its disobedience. The horrors of the World Wars galvanised dialogue on a new wave of legal philosophy that recognised the existence of some inalienable rights in every individual that could not be eliminated even by state-made laws. One could also discern their application in the famous Nuremberg trials where the defence of the Nazi officers — that they could not be punished because everything they did was in execution of valid legal commands — found no acceptance. The path-breaking work of several legal philosophers of that time had their impact in the promulgation of certain important international documents and treaties like the Charter of the United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, European Convention on Human Rights and the 1959 Declaration of Delhi on the rule of law.

This leads us to perceive the second function of a legal philosopher, to examine the validity of claims put forth by other legal philosophers. Take the theories of Lon Fuller in The Morality of Law. In this work Fuller creates a fictional King Rex who fails in the exercise of his lawmaking powers because (a) the laws do not have universal application, with the result that every case gets decided on an ad hoc basis; (b) his subjects remain ignorant of the rules he makes; (c) his law-making is an abuse of authority as he constantly keeps making retrospective legislation; (d) his rules suffer from lack of clarity; (e) his rules contradict each other; (f) his rules are subject to such frequent changes with the result that they give little time for subjects to adjust their actions; (g) he fails to ensure that the rules as administered are rules that have been enacted. Fuller claimed that a just king in his administration of justice avoids completely the debacles of King Rex’s system. Initially applauded, latter-day critics dissented from his views, pointing at apartheid rule in South Africa which was, applying Fuller’s prescriptions, undoubtedly effective but still far from being just.

The third function of a legal philosopher is to examine closely judicial pronouncements and legislations from philosophical perspectives. For instance, in India, a legal philosopher would have possibly raised the following questions about the National Judicial Appointments Commission judgment: If the Constitution of India is the social contract between the state and the citizen, through which provision of this social contract has the citizen vested “primacy” in the judiciary to select judges? If the source is not to be found in the written Constitution but in the “basic structure” doctrine, then is that doctrine a supplementary social contract that can be traced to a source other than the will of the people? If so, what is this source and what are its contours? Can Parliament bring in a legislation exhaustively declaring the “basic structure” on the plea that it needs guidance to its legislative exercise? Would that legislation itself be likely to be struck down as offending the principle of “basic structure”?

Or take the recent decision of the Supreme Court which holds that a wife demanding that her husband be separated from his parents is a ground for divorce. A legal philosopher would ask: Can this observation of the court be treated as a general norm? Is a wife to be treated as a means by the husband and/or his family to achieve their “cultural aspirations”, or is she to be recognised as an individual deserving mutual respect and dignity? A legal philosopher may even expand the scope of his inquiry to ask, is any human being entitled to treat another human being, or even our sentient fellow creatures and environment, as merely a means to their happiness and well-being, or is the dignity and mutual respect of the entities we interact with to be the prime focus of a just and law-abiding society? The questions are perplexing and a quest to find answers can be daunting… but where are our legal philosophers to question and to seek?

1.Which of the following can be used to describe Aristotle, Kautilya, William Blackstone and John Austin?

I. they were legal philosophers who developed legal systems

II. they were legal philosophers who contributed in shaping institutions of governance

III. they were philosophers who played a significant role in furthering the understanding of law

A Only (I)
B Only (II)
C Only (III)
D Both (I) and (II)
E Both (I) and (III)

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Correct Answer – B. Only (II)

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 3

2. What is the purpose to of the last paragraph of the passage?

I. illustrating how judicial pronouncements can be used to draw philosophical ideas

II. strengthening the author’s stand that the effectiveness of judiciary is being threatened in the modern world

III. supporting the legal philosophers’ stand of staying away from topics involving protection of dignity of women

A Only (III)
B None of (I), (II) or (III)
C Only (II)
D Both (I) and (II)
E Only (I)

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Correct Answer – A. Only (III)

Explanation: Refer to paragraph 6

3.Which of the following has been challenged in the recent times by using media and every conceivable public space as a medium?

I. our understanding of law as the harbinger of change in the society

II. our fundamental understanding of the concepts of law

III. our standing of the interplay of law with other related concepts

A Both (I) and (II)
B Both (I) and (III)
C Both (II) and (III)
D All (I), (II) and (III)
E Only (II)

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Correct Answer – C. Both (II) and (III)

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 1

4.Which of the following is not a factor highlighted by Lon Fuller which can possibility lead to failure in exercising lawmaking powers?

(a) population being ignorant of the rules

(b) multiple rules addressing similar issues

(c) laws lacking clarity

(d) laws lack universal applicability

(e) no continuous upgrading of rules

(f) abusing authority using rules

A (a) and (e)
B (b), (c) and (d)
C (e) and (f)
D (b) and (e)
E (a), (c), (d) and (f)

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Correct Answer – D. (b) and (e)

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 4

5.What is the purpose of the passage?

A staring a debate on the increasing risk to philosophers’ role in a society
B fiercely challenging the case against the increasing integration of philosophy and judiciary
C presenting the role of a legal philosopher as of that originated from the need of having an accountable judiciary
D highlighting legal philosophers’ role in shaping the structure of governance in a country
E More than one of the above

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Correct Answer – D. highlighting legal philosophers’ role in shaping the structure of governance in a country

Explanation: Through the passage, the author has tried to highlight the significance of the role played by legal philosophers in shaping the structure of governance in a country.

Directions:(6-10) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.

The ongoing protests in some of India’s largest cities (these include Delhi and Mumbai) to save natural and not built entities — trees in urban spaces — are remarkable, even though we understand that cities are centres of construction; spaces curated and created mainly by the human hand.

Hundreds of Delhi residents took to the streets in protest against a plan to have 14,000 trees cut for the “redevelopment” of government colonies in South Delhi. In Mumbai, citizens have been fighting for years to save over 2,000 trees in Aarey, slated to be felled for another kind of development — to make way for a metro line car shed.

The idea of an urban tree, one that is outside of a lush forest, does not resonate ecologically as much as a forest or a ‘pristine’ national park. Yet for urban activists protesting for their trees to be saved, the fight is for the tree they can see near their front porch; not one that has been marked for transplantation in unreachable parts of the city. For them, it is the tree that situates a particular part of the city by becoming an immutable part of the integrity of the landscape.

It is well known that forests are invaluable as ecological entities. The UN’s REDD, or Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries, programme lays emphasis on planting and maintaining forests as a means to counter climate change. In India, forests are governed under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, State laws, and the Indian Forest Act, 1927, which lay down elaborate rules for the conservation and diversion of forests. Despite this, forests are the first targets when it comes to projects such as mining, dams, highways, industrial projects and so on, to be offset by compensatory afforestation, i.e., planting trees at other locations. Former Minister of Environment, Forests and Climate Change Prakash Javadekar once remarked that diversion of forest should be seen as ‘reforestation’. As far as the issue of trees outside forest areas is concerned — city trees — the situation is much worse.

Trees in cities usually come under State Tree Acts; they can have variable descriptions. In Delhi, for example, these are usually avenue or colony trees. In the case of Aarey, it is a green belt or green patch. The monikers of ‘green belts’ or ‘green cover’ suggest a transferable quality in management — that the city would not be worse off if another tree or green belt comes up elsewhere, as long as it is green. Therefore, it is important that urban citizens are fighting to keep city trees where they are. They argue that the age and very place of the tree is an important fulcrum for their activism. In a sense then, a mature tree creates a sense of civilisation.

As India moves towards more urbanisation, can cities be looked at more as shared habitats between humans and biodiversity, rather than a jungle of buildings? The question, even if not consciously faced through planning strategies, will need to be tackled in one form or the other as cities become progressively more unliveable. With its year-round hazardous air quality and an increase in cars and inhabitants, Delhi is a tough city to live in. Trees in Delhi do not just purify the air; they are also visual relief.

The fact that cities need open spaces and greenery is clear from the number of people crowding parks, be it Central Park in New York or Lodhi Gardens in New Delhi. The earlier wave of tree plantation in Delhi which included Sarojini Nagar, Nauroji Nagar, and Netaji Nagar, marked for redevelopment, have trees beneficial for biodiversity — native and naturalised trees such as neem, banyan, peepal, semal, arjuna, and siris. These large, old trees have become markers for Delhi. Yet, several new constructions in the cities belie these values even though they look green or have green belts. Buildings with basements are made in ways that allow only shallow beds which would not withstand deep-rooted, native trees. In sum, many new apartment complexes have green belts that do very little for biodiversity or the ecological idea of greenery.

Thus, the fight for Delhi’s trees is also a fight for the right kind of species to be allowed to grow to the right size; this flies in the face of quickly manicured or manufactured ‘green belts’. It outlines a struggle for cities which have a civilisation of shared meaning and relationships between people and nature. And clearly this relationship comes through size, age and the tree as an optic for a lived, native habitat for birds and wildlife. Urban biodiversity then can be its own form of civilisation — one that our air as well as our urban identity needs desperately.

6.As per the passage, why do people try to protect the trees in the urban areas even when they are away from their natural location in forests and national parks?

A they become the only way of survival for the urban residents
B they become an indispensable part of their landscape
C their cutting would mean more floods in urban areas
D they add to the scenic beauty of forests
E All of the above

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Correct Answer – B. they become an indispensable part of their landscape

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 3

7.Which of the following is in line with author’s opinion about the so-called proposed “green-belts” in cities?

I. they are not effective enough to replace age-old trees in cities

II. they are the only way out of the deteriorating state of environment in the cities

III. they can help improve the state of old trees in the cities

A Only (III)
B Only (II)
C Only (I)
D Both (I) and (II)
E None of (I), (II) or (III)

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Correct Answer – C. Only (I)

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 8

8. As per the passage, why are urban citizens fighting to keep city trees where they are?

A mature trees create a sense of civilisation
B relocating trees would mean wasting taxpayers’ money
C the age and very place of a tree is central to their protest
D it would affect the air quality of the areas trees are relocated from
E More than one of the above

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Correct Answer – E. More than one of the above

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 5

9. Which of the following is a purpose for which trees are cut in cities?

I. for rebuilding government colonies

II. for constructing public infrastructure such as car sheds

III. for meeting fuel and fodder needs

A Both (II) and (III)
B Both (I) and (II)
C Only (II)
D Only (III)
E All (I), (II) and (III)

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Correct Answer – B. Both (I) and (II)

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 2

10. How do laws governing the protection of forests in the country make sure they are not affected when trees are for developmental projects?

A by levying higher taxes on the common citizens
B by rejecting every application for cutting of trees for such projects
C by necessitating planting of trees at other locations
D by providing for subsidies to those who take measures to minimise the lost to forests
E by charging hefty fees on those involved in such projects

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Correct Answer  – C. by necessitating planting of trees at other locations

Explanation: Refer to Paragraph 4


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