Coastal India is a geo-cultural region in the Indian subcontinent that spans the entire coastline of India.As per the 1970 assessment, the total coastal length of India is 7516.6 km.India’s mainland has a coastline of 5422.6 km and island territories have a total coastline of 2094 km together. The mainland India comprises of the 9 coastal states and the 2 mainland UTs of Daman & Diu and Puducherry. The Andaman & Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands are the 2 Island territories.The state/UT-wise break up of Indian coastline, as per the above assessment is shown below:
- The western coastal states are: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala.
- The eastern coastal states are: Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal.
State/UT wise Coastal length in India
|S.No.||State/UT||Coastline (In kms)|
|2.||Goa, Daman & Diu||160.5|
|10.||Andaman & Nicobar||1962|
- Important coastal regions in Andhra Pradesh are as follows:- Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore.
- The Characteristic features of these coastlines are smooth with inundations; deltaic coast of Krishna and Godavari, marshy muddy coasts.
- It is India’s third largest state-owned port by volume of cargo handled and largest on the Eastern Coast. It is located midway between the Chennai and Kolkata Ports on the Bay of Bengal.
Goa, Daman & Diu
- Important coastal regions in Goa, Daman & Diu are as follows:- Goa, Daman (Daman & Diu).
- The Characteristic features of these coastlines are Straight coastline broken at numerous places by rivers, rivulets, creeks and bays; northern part is rocky coast.
- It was accorded the status of a Major Port in 1963, the Mormugao port has contributed immensely to growth of maritime trade in India.It is the leading iron ore exporting port of India with an annual throughput of around 27.33 million tonnes of iron ore traffic.
- Important coastal regions in Gujarat are as follows- Kachchh, Morvi, Jamnagar, Devbhoomi Dwarka, Porbandar, Junagadh, Gir Somnath, Amreli, Bhavnagar, Anand, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Bharuch, Surat, Navsari, Valsa.
- The Characteristic features of these coastlines are Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Khambat with extensive continental shelf area and shallow coast; sandy intertidal zone with vast stretches of muddy or sand stone areas.
- Gujarat is strategically located along the western cost of India with 1600+ kilometers coastline and above that providing the nearest maritime outlet to Middle-East i.e. Gulf countries, Africa and Europe.
- Gujarat state has 1 major port (at Kandla named Deendayal Port which is regulated by the Government of India) and 48 non-major ports which also includes the biggest ship recycling yard at Alang and another at Sachana.
- Gujarat is home to Mundra Port which is India leading private port in terms of traffic handled also installed capacity and Kandla (Deendayal Port) which is leading Central Government port in terms of traffic handled, Gujarat state major import and export commodities which are handled by the port sector are: Petroleum and Chemicals, Coal, Minerals, LNG and General cargo.
- Important coastal regions in Karnataka are as follows Uttar Kannada, Udupi, and Dakshin Kannada
- The Characteristic features of these coastlines Straight coastline broken at numerous places by rivers, rivulets, creeks and bays; northern part is rocky coast.
- Karnataka’s coastline called Karavali stretches 280 km between Mangalore in Dakshina Kannada district and Karwar in Uttara Kannada district.The coastline of Karnataka has been along the eastern shore of Arabian Sea. Karnataka has one major and ten minor ports in this coastal belt. Kali, Belekeri, Gangavali, Aghanashini Sharavathi, Sharabi, Kollur, Gangolli, Sitanadi, Gurpur and Netravati are the important rivers in this belt which empty into the Arabian sea.
- The New Mangalore Port is the only major port of Karnataka and is currently the seventh largest port in India.It exports commodities such as granite stones, cashew, manganese and coffee and imports products like LPG, timber, cargo container and others.
- Important coastal regions in Kerela are as follows- Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozikhode, Mallappuram, Ernakulam, Kollam, Thrissur, Alappuzha, and Thiruvananthapuram.
- The Characteristic feature of these coastlines Chain of brackish water lagoons and backwaters parallel to the coast, beaches and estuaries.
- Kerala has 1 Major port, 7 intermediate ports and 12 minor ports.
- Kochi Port, which is an all-weather natural harbour, is the major port present in Kerala. It is one of the largest commercial ports in India and the closest to international shipping routes (as well as safest for ships to dock).
- Kochi is an important hub of maritime commerce in India with a string of facilities like a container transshipment terminal(the only Indian port with this facility), shipyard for ship manufacturing and maintenance(largest in India), LNG terminal, oil terminal of Kochi Refineries, marina for yacht-totters(only facility in India).
- Important coastal regions in Maharashtra are as follows- Palghra, Thane, Raigarh, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Mumbai City, Mumbai Suburban.
- The Characteristic feature of these coastlines Rocky coastal belt broken by small bays, creeks and fringed with islands; no major rivers.
- There are Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Mumbai Port, Dharamtar, Mora, Redi, Jaitapur, and Rewas.
- It is the Largest Container Port in India.
- Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) also known as Nhava Sheva, Navi Mumbai.
- Important coastal regions in Odisha are as follows- Baleshwar, Bhadrak, Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur, Puri, Khordha and Ganjam.
- The Characteristic feature of these coastlines Coast is depositional, formed by Mahanadi, Brahmani and Baitarani delta.
- There are Astaranga Port, Dhamra Port, Paradip Port, Gopalpur Port, Subarnarekha Port and Mahanadi Riverrine Port.
- Natural Harbor deals with the export of iron and aluminium.
- Important coastal regions in Tamilnadu are as follows- Tiruvallur, Kancheepuram, Vilupuram, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli, and Kanyakumari
- The Characteristic feature of these coastlines Narrow belt of sand dunes, low lying beach, plains mostly formed by rivers.
- There are Chennai Port, Colachel Seaport, Nagapattinam Port, Thirukkuvalai Port and V. O. Chidambaranar Port Trust.
- A major port in south India deals with the fertilizers and petrochemical products
- Ennore port is the India’s first corporatized port.
- Important coastal regions in West Bengal are as follows- North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas Haora, Purba Medinipur.
- The Characteristic feature of these coastlines Ganga and Brahmputra river systems create large intertidal, deltaic mass. Hooghly mouth is uneven formed by massive sedimentation, coast sand riffed with numerous tidal creeks & estuaries.
- There are Kolkata Port, Haldia Port, Kulpi Port, Farakka Port, Sagar Port and Tajpur Port.
- India’s only major Riverine port Situated on Hugli river Known as Diamond Harbour.It is the most important centre of jute Industries.
- Haldia is one of the most important ports of the state.
Andaman & Nicobar
- Port Blair Port is a seaport in South Andaman district of Andaman and Nicobar in India.
- It is one of major ports in India.The port operated by Port Blair Port Trust.
- The Port Blair becomes the 13th major port in India and only major port in Andaman and Nicobar.
- The Port Blair port would have territorial jurisdiction over 23 other ports in Andaman and Nicobar, including East Island Port, Mayabunder Port, Elphinston Harbour Rangat Port, Havelock Port, Neil Island Port, Chowra Port, Teressa Port and Nancowry Harbour Port.
- This port is situated in between two international shipping lines namely Saudi Arabia & US Singapore.