UPSC Exam 2018 | List of Important Wars and Treaties in Indian History

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List of Important Wars and Treaties in Indian History

Important Wars and Treaties in Indian History. Wars and battles fought in India have long influenced the country’s cultural and linguistic ethos. The main wars and battles were fought between different dynasties, kingdoms and empires. There are some Important Wars and Treaties in Indian History that can never lose significance. Questions based on these Wars and Treaties in Indian History are widely asked in General Awareness section of exams like UPSC, RPSC, SSC and other PCS & Railways Exams.

Today we are providing you a “List of Important Wars and Treaties in Indian History”. Go through the list and enrich your knowledge of History. Besides, it can help you score better in various competitive exams such as IAS/ PCS, Banking and SSC.

You should also see our previous articles of History here:-

Various dynasties during 10th century.

Delhi Sultanate 

India in 18th Century

India with Decline of mughals

Sikhs and Marathas after Mughals

Deccan, Sufism and Mughal art & architecture

Literature and art during medieval times

So here is the compilation of important wars and treaties You must remember for exams

War Year Treaty Gov General Battles 
Anglo Marathas
First 1775-82 Began: Treaty of Surat

End: Treaty of Salbai

Warren Hastings Battle of Wadgaon
Second 1803-05 Began: treaty of Bassein Lord Wellesley Battle of Assaye
Third 1816-19 Treaty of Gwalior Marquess  of Hastings Battle of Pindari

End of Peshwa rule

 
Anglo French
First 1746-48 Treaty of Aix-la-Chepelle Reason: Austrian succession in Europe 1746: Battle of Adyar/San Thome
Second 1749-54 War of succession between Nasir Jung (English) and Muzaffar Jung (French) after death of Nizam 1749: Battle of Ambur

 

Rise of Robert Clive

Third 1758-63 Treaty of Paris Reason: 7 years war in Europe 1760: Battle of Wandiwash (French defeat)
 
Anglo Mysore
First 1766-69
Second 1780-1784 Treaty of Mangalore Warren Hastings After death of Hyder Ali in 1782 Tipu led the war
Third 1789-92 Treaty of Seringapatnam Cornwallis Defeat of Tipu
Fourth 1799 Wellesley Battle of Seringapatnam. Death of Tipu.
 
Anglo Sikh War
First 1845-46 Treaty of Lahore Hardinge
Second 1848-49 Dalhousie Final Subjugation of the Sikhs

List of Important Treaties in the History of India

Name of The Treaty

Year

Importance/Remarks

Treaty of Asurar Ali 1639 The treaty established the boundary between the Mughal empire and the Ahom kingdom ending the Mughal’s efforts to conquer Ahom.
Treaty of Purandar 1665 The Treaty of Purandar was signed in 1665 between the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I, who was commander of the Mughal Empire, and Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Shivaji was forced to sign the agreement after Jai Singh besieged Purandar fort. When Shivaji realised that war with the Mughal Empire would only cause damage to the empire and that his men would suffer heavy losses, he choose to make a treaty.
Sangola Agreement 1752 Henceforth the maratha king became the mayor of the place and the peshwa emerged as the real head of maratha federacy.
Treaty of Alinagar 1757 Signed between Siraj-ud-dwala and Robert Clive allowing the British to fortify Calcutta and also allow British goods to pass through Bengal without duties.
Treaty of Paris 1763 The french were defeated by the british company and its settlements were captured. The french possessions in india were ,however restored by this treaty.
Treaty of Allahabad 1765 The Treaty of Allahabad was signed in 1765, between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor Alamgir II, and Lord Robert Clive, of the East India Company, as a outcome of the Battle of Buxar of 1764. As per the terms of the agreement, Alam granted the East India Company Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa. This Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of British rule in India.
Treaty of Madras 1769 The Treaty of Madras was signed between the British and Hyder Ali of Mysore to bring to and end the first Mysore War. Under the treaty, both the parties agreed to return the areas won the each and to support each other in case of a thrid party invasion.
Treaty of Benaras 1773 Between hastings and nawab of oudh. Allahabad was handed over to nawab.
Reaty of 1775 1775 On the death of shuja ud daula in 1775 , a new treaty was concluded with his successor , according to which a regular brigade  of the company’s troops was stationed in oudh..
Treaty of Surat 1775 Signed by raghunath rao with the bombay governament in the hope of help of english subsidiary troops in his flight for peshwaship
Treaty of Purandar 1776 Signed between the British and the Marathas bringing the first phase of the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.
Treaty of Wadgaon 1779 Signed between the British and the Marathas bringing the second phase of the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.
Treaty of Salbai 1782 Signed between the British and the Marathas bringing the First Anglo-Maratha War to an end.
Treaty of Mangalore 1784 The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Lord macartney ,governor of madras ,concluded with tipu the treaty of mangalore on the basis of mutual restriction of conquests and liberation of prisoners.

Treaty of Seringapatam 1792 Signed between the British (Lord Cornwallis), the Marathas, Hyderabad and Tipu Sultan. This ended the Third Anglo-Mysore War allowing the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad and the British to annex almost half of Tipu Sultan’s territories.
Treaty of Bassein 1802  Signed by baji rao II  with the english after his defeat at the hands of holkar.
Treaty of Deogaon 1805 Holkar gave up claims on the areas of company’s allies.
Treaty of Amritsar 1809 Between ranjith singh and the english company , which fixed the river sutlej as the boundary of ranjith singh’s authority.
Treaty of Sagauli 1816 After the english victory over nepal , the treaty was signed . The nepal ruler gave up his claims to sikkim , ceded the disputed tarai tracts , and received a resident at khatmandu .
Treaty of Yandaboo 1826 Great britain agreed to help iran with men and money against any european invader .
Treaty of Lahore 1846 Signed between Governor General Air Henry Hardinge for the British and members of Lahore darbar representing the young Maharaja Duleep Singh Bahadur. The treaty marked the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Treaty of Amritsar 1846 The Treaty of Amritsar followed the Treaty of Lahore. By this treaty the British East India Company sold Kashmir to Maharaja Gulab Singh, whose dynasty ruled till 1947, when Maharaja Hari Singh acceded Kashmir to India.
Treaty of Bhirowal 1846 By this treaty  , rani jindan was deprived of all powers and the administration was to be carried on by a ‘ council of regency ‘ composed of eight leading chiefs under the virtual dictatorship of the british resident .

List of Important Wars and Battles in Indian History

S.N. Name of the Battle Year Battle between Won by Significance
1 Battle of Hydaspas 326 B.C. Alaxender and Porus Alaxender defeated king Porus Impressed by the bravery of Porus, he allowed to retian the kingship of Porus
2 Kalinga War 261 B.C. Ashoka and Raja Anant Padmanabhan Ashoka It was the bloodiest war of human history and lakhs were killed from either sides. Ashoka filled with remorse and took pledge of non violence and adopted Buddhism
3 First Battle of Tarain 1191 A.D. Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Ghori Prithviraj defeated Ghori This is called the first war of Hindu Rajput king and Muslim invader. This war took place near Tarain, Thanesar distt of Haryana
4 Second Battle of Tarain 1192 A.D. Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan Establishment of an Islamic empire in India
5 Battle of Chhandwar 1194 A.D. Muhammad Ghori and Jaychand Ghori defeats Jaichandra of Kannauj
6 Battle of Gakkhar and Ghori 1206 A.D. Gakkhar and Md Ghori Ghori was killed by Gakkhar tribes in this attack
7 First Battle of Panipat 1526 A.D. Babur and Ibrahim Lodi Babar defeats Ibrahim Lodhi Canons, Gunpowder and artilery was used by Babur which was the first time ever use of these in Indian subcontinent. Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the field and this war paved the foundation of strong Mughal Empire in India
8 Battle of Khanwa 1527 A.D. Babur and Rana Sanga Babar defeats Rana Sanga Babur assumed title of Ghazi after this battle,The alliance of Rana Sanga although outnumbered that of Babur, still Sanga was defeated and the alliance dispersed. Rana Sanga escapes to Chittor
9 Battle of Chanderi 1528 A.D. Babur and Medini Rai Babar defeats Medini Rai
10 Battle of Ghaghara 1529 A.D. Babur and Sultan Mahmud Lodi Babar defeats the Afghans This was the third major battle of Babur after which control of Mughal Empire over India was secured and fully established. Mahmud Lodi who was the brother of Ibrahim Lodi declared himself the sultan of Delhi with the support of Nusrat shah of Bengal, Jalaluddin Lohani, Sher Shah Suri , Rajputs and Afghans. Babur emerged victorious and consolidated his control.
11 Battle of Chausa 1539 A.D. Sher Shah Suri and Humayun Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun Sher Shah became emperor of India thus breaking the Mughal rule in India
12 Battle of Kannauj (or Bilgram) 1540 A.D. इSher Shah Suri and Humayun Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayun for the second time.
13 Second Battle of Panipat 1556 A.D. Akbar and Hemu Bairam Khan (representing Akbar) defeats Hemu Ended afghan rule,strengthened mughal rule
14 Battle of Talikota (or Banihatti) 1565 A.D. Deccan Sultanates and Vijayanagar Empire Deccan Sultanates defeated the glorious Vijayanagar empire Destroyed Hindu kingdom of the Deccan,sealed the fortunes of Vijayanagar empire
15 Battle of Haldighati 1576 A.D. Maharana Pratap & Mughal Emperor Akbar, who was led by Man Singh Undecisive battle between Raja Man Singh of Mughal Army and Rana Pratap of Mewar Rana Pratap fought gallantly and took refuge in a remote fortress.This battle is the shortest battle of Indian history and lasted only 4 hours.
16 Battle of Samugarh 1659 A.D. Aurangzeb & Imperial forces led by Dara Aurangzeb Aurangzeb captured the Mughal throne
17 Battle of Plassey 1757 A.D. Siraj-ud-daulah with French & British East India Company under Robert Clive British defeated Siraj-ud-duala the Nawab of Bengal with the help of Mir Zafar. Fought at Plassey. The British empire became masters of Bengal, foundation of British rule
18 Third Battle of Panipat 1761 A.D. Ahmed Shah Abdali and Marathas Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats Marathas Gave a setback to marathas in the north; sealed destiny of Mughal empire and made British entry easier
19 Battle of Buxar 1764 A.D. British East India Co Vs alliance of Nawab of Bengal, Awadh and Mughals British defeated the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-duala (Nawab of Oudh) and Shah Alam II(Mughal emperor). Led to English occupation of India
20 First Anglo Mysore War 1767-69 A.D. Hyder Ali (Mysore) Vs British, Marathas Hyder Ali defeats English forces The battles include Battle of Chengam, Battle of Tiruvannamalai, Siege of Ambur
21 Second Anglo Mysore War 1780-84 A.D. Hyder Ali, Tipu Sultan (Mysore) Vs British Hyder Ali dies. Treaty of Mangalore is signed Various battles in this series of war includes Battle of Pollilur, Battle of Porto Novo, Battle of Sholinghur, Siege of Tellicherry, Vellore, Cuddalore, Mangalore.
22 Third Anglo Mysore War 1789-92 A.D. Mysore kingdom Vs British East India Co. Tipu Sultan defeated. Treaty of Serirangapatnam is signed. The battles of this war include Battle of Nedumkotta, Battle of Calicut, Battle of Sittimungulum, Battle of Arakere, Capture of Hooly Honroe, Capture of Seringapatanam, Capture of Shimoga etc.
23 Fourth Anglo Mysore War 1799 A.D. British Forces Vs Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan is defeated and killed Mysore kingdom was given back to Wodeyar dynasty under subsidary alliance.
24 First Anglo Maratha War 1766-69 A.D. Maratha Empire and British East India Company British defeated Marathas This war ended with Treaty of Salbai between Maratha and British
25 Second Anglo Maratha War 1803-06 A.D. Maratha Empire and British East India Company Marathas lose to the British Only in Battle of Bharatpur, Marathas were able to defeat and repulse the British Forces four times when they attempted to capture Bharatpur Fort.
26 Third Anglo Maratha War 1817-19 A.D. Maratha Empire and British East India Company Marathas lose to the British again Treaty of Mandasor
27 First Anglo Afghan War 1839-42 A.D. British East India Company and Afghan Afghans Tripartite Treaty between Ranjit Singh, Shah Shuja & Lord Auckland
28 Second Anglo Afghan War 1868-80 A.D. British East India Company and Afghan British defeat Afghan Treaty of Peshawar, Treaty of Gandamak
29 Third Anglo Afghan War 1919-21 A.D. British East India Company and Afghan Afghans Ended in an Artimice. Durand line established.Treaty of Rawalpindi
30 First Anglo Sikh War 1845-46 A.D. Sikh Empire & British East India Company Sike lose to British
31 Second Anglo Sikh War 1848-49 A.D. Sikh Empire & British East India Company British East India Company defeated Sikhs Sikh kingdom came under the British

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Poet/Writer Language Work
Kanchan Nambiar Malayalam
Tayaumanavar Tamil (Sittar poet)
Dayaram Gujarati
Warris Shah Punjabi Heer Ranjha
Shah Abdul Latif Sindhi Risalo
Sachal, Siami Sindhi

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Education in India

  • 1781 – Calcutta Madarsah by Hastings
  • 1791 – Sanskrit College, Varanasi: Jonathan Duncan
  • 1813 – Charter Act directed the Company to spend a sum of Rs. 1 lakh on education <was made available in 1823>
  • 1817 – Hindu College by David Hare & RM Roy; 1825 – Vedanta College, RM Roy
  • 1835 – Macaulay’s minute
  • 1854 – Wood’s Dispatch: asked the govt to assume the responsibility for the education of the masses

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Miscellaneous: 

  • Gopal Hari Deshmukh was a religious reformer in Western India and was popularly known as ‘Lokahitwadi’
  • Separate electorates were introduced  by the Morley Minto Reforms of 1909
  • Dyarchy was introduced by the Montford reforms of 1919
  • Timeline of Satyagraha: Champaran (1917) – Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918) – Kheda (1918)
  • 1927 – Butler commission to review the centre state relations
  • 1934 – Congress Socialist Party: Acharya Narendra Dev and JP
  • 1936 – All India Kisan Sabha: Swami Sahajanand Saraswati

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