Daily Vocabulary Builder PDF - 30th April 2018
Daily Vocabulary Builder PDF - 30th April 2018

Daily Vocabulary Builder – The Economic Times Editorial with Vocabulary

The Economic Times Editorial with Vocabulary. Welcome to the www.letsstudytogether.co online editorial with vocabulary section. As we all know that now a day’s in All Banking Exams and other competitive exams most of the English Sections were taken from Editorial pages.

To help you in this part and to improve your score in English Section here we have provided you the Daily Vocabulary Builder PDF of The Economic Times Editorial with Vocab. Aspirants those who want to improve in English can read and download this The Economic Times Editorial with Vocabulary PDF. We will be updating daily by title “Daily Vocabulary Builder PDF “and make use of it.

The Economic Times Editorial with Vocabulary – “Fighting Counter-Devolution”

Finance Commission should prod states to empower city governments. The terms of reference of the 15th Finance Commission have raised a storm of protest, because they mandate the use of 2011 census data, not the 1971 data used by earlier Finance Commissions, to help determine the sharing of central taxes between the states. The southern states have been especially vocal, although this affects the western states too.

This ruckus has distracted attention from the broader question of which flaws in the existing system should become the focus of conditionalities and weightage attached to state performance. The terms of reference of the commission include making proposals to reward good performance and penalise slacking.

Removing Fish Plates

Of the many institutional reforms that have been sabotaged in the past, none stands out so starkly as the sabotage of the 74th constitutional amendment providing for the empowerment of urban local bodies — nagarpalikas, or municipalities. The 73rd and 74th amendments were supposed to ensure that panchayats and nagarpalikas respectively got political and economic empowerment of a substantial nature, ensuring that all power in a state was not concentrated in the state capital.

Unfortunately, these amendments allowed each state to decide what powers should be decentralised, the result being that devolution was grossly insufficient. State capitals did not want to cede significant power or cash to local bodies.

Nevertheless, some functions were indeed devolved, but more for panchayats than nagarpalikas, notably in a few states like Kerala. Separately, central schemes like MNREGA provided for panchayats to choose and implement at least half the rural works under the scheme. Successive Finance Commissions (appointed every five years) began making provisions for the sharing of central revenue with not just state governments but also local bodies. The 15th Finance Commission should go further down this road.

However, merely handing out additional cash will not end the sabotage of urban decentralisation by state capitals. With only a few exceptions, Indian cities are basically run by chief ministers through bureaucrats, not by empowered mayors, as happens in many countries.

The mayor of New York City, for instance, is so powerful that he is often viewed as a potential candidate to run for president. In Indonesia, JokoWidodo made his reputation as mayor of the city of Solo, and later ran the city of Jakarta so well that he ran for and became president.

For that very reason, Indian CMs do not want cities to have powerful mayors, since they may become political rivals. Besides, cities are rich and provide huge scope for patronage and kickbacks, which no CM wants to share with an empowered mayor. Most municipalities are superseded by the state government, or given few powers.

Delhi is an exception, since it is a city-state ruled by a chief minister. Yet, many areas and administrative functions are managed directly by the central government, or by three municipal corporations. This division of power dilutes whatever decentralisation actually takes place.

Chief minister Arvind Kejriwal complains bitterly of being sabotaged by GoI at every step. No PM would like the Delhi CM to become politically strong and popular — and, hence, a political rival — even if the two belong to the same party.

In sum, the 74th amendment to the Constitution has proved in practice to be a farce. Global experience shows that effective decentralisation has three dimensions: political, administrative and financial.

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Devolve and Solve

Political decentralisation requires local body elections, which are indeed held in India. Administrative decentralisation requires the devolution of administrative functions, plus hiring and firing to local bodies, and no state government wants to go far in this.

Financial decentralisation (विकेन्द्रीकरण) requires devolution of tax powers plus higher automatic cash devolutions from central and state revenues to local bodies. And no state capital is keen on this either.

If any one of the three dimensions are missing, decentralisation typically fails. If, for instance, a local body has elections but lacks devolved administrative powers or devolved funding, it becomes a cosmetic, powerless husk. This, alas, has been the fate of nagarpalikas.

The 15th Finance Commission should not rest content with merely devolving some modest funds to panchayats and nagarpalikas. More important will be the introduction of conditionalities: some proportion of central revenues should be given only to states that clear certain benchmarks with regard to urban decentralisation. Over and above that, a significant weightage — at least 5-10% — in the sharing of revenues between states should be assigned to the achievement of these benchmarks.

Right now, there is no institutional check on the sabotage of the 74th amendment by state governments. Neither the courts nor GoI can force the states to empower city governments. But the Finance Commission can certainly propose substantial rewards for states that are serious about decentralization, and penalties for those that are not.

Such an incentive system may not be strong enough to produce radical results. There is no chance, for instance, that any state government will devolve police powers on major cities, as happens in the US. But even modest urban empowerment will be better than today’s farce.

Vocabulary Words from The Economic Times Editorial

1. Devolution(noun) हस्तांतरण/ सौंपना/ अधिकारों का हस्तांतरण : The transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration.

Synonyms: Decentralization, Delegation, Dispersal, Distribution, Transfer, Surrender

Antonyms: Centralization, Progress, Improvement, Upgrade, Development

Example: Is it any surprise that in most parts of the world there is so much pressure for local government and devolution?

2. Grossly(adverb) निहायत/ परिपूर्णता से : You use gross to describe something unacceptable or unpleasant to a very great amount, degree, or intensity. (obviously or exceptionally culpable or wrong; flagrant)

Synonyms: Incredibly, Extraordinarily, Enormously, Outstandingly

Antonyms: Slightly, Pleasantly, Politely

Example: It would be pointless to agree a tax on gross profits as racing would lose out.

3. Patronage(noun) संरक्षण/ प्रतिपालन/ सहायता : The support and money given by someone to a person or a group such as a charity. (the support given or custom brought by a patron or patroness)

Synonyms:  Sponsorship, Backing, Funding, Financing, Promotion, Assistance, Support

Antonyms: Antagonism, Detraction, Opposition

Example: The patronage of the powerful could cut ten years of struggle off her climb to the top.

4. Kickbacks(noun) रिश्वत / वापसी : An amount of money that is paid to someone illegally in exchange for secret help or work. (an income paid to a person having influence over the size or payment of the income, esp by some illegal arrangement)

Synonyms: Bribe, Lure, Pay-Off, Boodle

Antonyms: Compensation, Earnings, Guerdon, Remuneration, Wages

Example: A large part of that money was then alleged to have been transferred in kickbacks and bribes to Teixeira.

5. Supercede(verb) किसी की जगह ले लेना/ अधिक्रमण करना : To replace something, especially something older or more old-fashioned.

Synonyms: Displace, Displant, Relieve, Replace, Substitute, Supplant.

Antonyms: Precede, Follow, Succed

Example: This has now been superseded by new information received only today.

6. Farce(noun) तमाशा/ मज़ाक : A situation that is very badly organized or unfair and which is a subject of ridicule. (a broadly humorous play based on the exploitation of improbable situations)

Synonyms:  Absurdity, Mockery, Travesty, Sham, Pretence, Masquerade, Charade

Antonyms: Seriousness, Sobriety, Tragedy, Solemnity

Example: Then came a moment of low farce and high controversy.

7. Prod(verb) उकसावा देना/ ठेस देना या लगाना/ प्रेरित करना :  An act of persuading or encouraging someone to do something) (to poke or jab with or as if with a pointed object)

Synonyms: Spur, stimulate, stir, push, galvanize, motivate, encourage, persuade, urge, chivvy incite, goad, provoke.

Antonyms: Deter, Discourage, Dissuade, Curb, Hold Back, Inhibit, Restrain

Example: You offer lively, informative, interesting, and, yes, controversial articles that stir the soul and prod the mind.

8. Ruckus(noun) हंगामा : A noisy situation or argument. (A great deal of noise, argument, or confusion.)

Synonyms:  Rumpus, Fracas, Affray, Melee, Ruction, Din, Racket, Commotion, Cacophony

Antonyms: Serenity, Hush, Tranquility, Placid, Composure, Imperturbable

Example:  The ruckus at the door had focused itself into one six-foot hurricane that was headed straight Molly’s way.

9. Slack(adjective) असावधान/ लापरवाह/ निष्क्रिय : To work less hard or to be less than is usual or necessary. (Something that is slack is loose and not firmly stretched or tightly in position.)

Synonyms: Careless, Derelict, Lax, Negligent, Remiss, Irresponsible, Delinquent

Antonyms: Attentive, Careful, Conscientious, Meticulous, Punctilious, Gingerly

Example: Successive editors have cut themselves enough slack to pick players who just happen to appeal to them.

10. Sabotage(verb) तोड़-फोड़/ नुक़सान पहुंचाना: To damage or destroy equipment, weapons, or buildings in order toprevent the success of an enemy or competitor. (to destroy, damage, or disrupt, esp by secret means)

Synonyms: Vandalize, Destroy, Obstruct, Disrupt, Cripple, Impair, Incapacitate, Wreck

Antonyms: Build, Repair, Create, Restore, Preserve

Example: The opposition boycotted and sabotaged an election in February which they would certainly have lost again.

Word of the Day –  “Tumultuous”

  • Tumultuous (adjective) अंशातिप्रिय ,उथल-पुथल, उपद्रवी, ऊधमी उत्पाती, विक्षुब्ध, अशांत, उत्तेजित, उग्र, गड़बड़
  • Meaning:-  A tumultuous event or period of time involves many exciting and confusing events or feelings.
  • Synonyms: Loud, deafening, thunderous, uproarious, noisy, clamorous, vociferous, vehement.
  • Antonym: Gentle, moderate, peaceful, orderly.
  • Example: The president said later in a telephone interview with The Associated Press, “We’re passing through a tumultuous economic period.”
  • उदाहरण: एसोसिएटेड प्रेस को बाद में टेलीफोन पर दिए गए साक्षात्कार में राष्ट्रपति ने कहा, “हम आर्थिक उथल-पुथल के दौर से गुज़र रहे हैं”।

Quote of the Day

“Action is not a matter of right and wrong. It is only when action is partial, not total, that there is right and wrong.” Bruce Lee

“कर्म सही या गलत नहीं होता है। लेकिन जब कर्म आंशिक, अधूरा होता है, सही या गलत की बात तब सामने आती है।” ब्रूस ली

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