Most Important Topics to Study: Ancient Indian Architecture Notes

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Ancient Indian Architecture Notes:

Various form of Architecture is asked in every exam from UPSC to SSC.

In this post we have included most important features of Ancient Indian Architecture that are must study for exams. We have previously posted about different officers in Indian History.

Later on more post will be coming soon.

Ancient Indian Architecture Notes are designed for quick revision and are made from NCERTs. Ancient Indian Notes will include architecture with the particular timeline.

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 Ancient Indian Architecture

Harappan

  • Drainage system
  • Rectangular intersecting roads
  • Sanitary system

Mauryan

  • Monolithic Pillars
  • Finely carved capitols – Bull capitol and Sarnath capitol
  • Stupas start during this period – 4 gateways
    • Surface built with bricks
  • Viharas and Chaityas
    • Barabar Caves

Shunga – Satvahanas

  • Early classic architecture
  • Carved railings and gateways around Buddhist shrines

Kushan

  • Sculpture developed
  • The emperor himself was a divine authority
  • Buddha was first time given a human form during this time

Gupta period

  • Beginning of Hindu temples – temple at Deoghar, Udaigiri caves in Orissa
  • Vaishnavite temple in Vidisha

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Pallavas

  • Mandaps, Rathas and finely carved panels and pillars
  • Shore temple at Mahabs is a structural temple
  • Ratha temple is a rock cut temple
  • Kanchipuram also has temples
    • Panels depict shiva as Natraja
    • History of Pallavas

Cholas

  • Tanjaur Temple: 65 m tall vimana
  • Pillared halls and sculptures depicting Bharata’s natyashastra
  • Fine paintings

Pandyas

  • Built high outerwalls and gopuram
  • Their gopurams can be seen from long distances

Hoysalas

  • Belur and Halebeed temples
  • Profusion of manifold pillars with rich and intricate carvings
  • Panels depict gods and goddesses

Orissa Temples

  • Lingraja temple
    • 40 m high
  • Sun Temple

Nagara, Dravida and Visara

 

 

Nagara Dravida Visara
Temples are called as PRASADA   Combination of the wo prevalent form of architecture  Dravida and Nagara (Chalukyas).
Shikhara is curvilinear Shikhara pyramidal  
No role of pillar Pillar important  
No tank Tank may be there  
No enclosure Enclosure and gopuram  
  Vimana  
Mahadeva Temple Brihadeshwara Eg Some in Khajuraho, Sirpur etc

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Cave architecture

Progressed in three phases

  • Buddhist Jain Ajivika caves (3rd BC to 2nd AD)
    • Kaneri, Nashik, Udaigiri
  • Ajanta Ellora Cave (5th to 7th AD)
  • Elephanta Ellora and Mahabs (7th to 10th)

 

Sculpture

Two major schools

  • Gandhara
    • Greco-Roman Style
    • North West India
    • Stone and stucco
  • Mathura
    • Indigenous style
    • UP Bihar
    • White spotted red sandstone used
    • Forms of Brahmanical deities crystallised for the first time in this art form

Themes of Buddha and Bodhisatvas in Both

See History MCQ-here

Thank you and All the best

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