Reading Comprehension Quiz -Set -20 : IBPS PO | IBPS RRB 2017

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Reading Comprehension Quiz

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Q.Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

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Caffeine, the stimulant in coffee, has been called ‘the most widely used psychoactive substance on Earth. “Snyder, Daly, and Bruns have recently proposed that caffeine affects behavior by countering the activity in the human brain of unnaturally occurring chemical called adenosine. Adenosine normally depresses neuron firing in many areas of the brain. It apparently does this by inhibiting the release of neuro transmitters, chemicals that carry impulses from one neuron to the next.

 Like many other agents that affect neuron firing adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on neuronal membranes. There are at least two classes of these receptors, which have been designated Aᵪ and Aᵦ. Snyder et al. propose that caffeine, which is structurally similar to adenosine, is able to bind to both types of receptors, which prevents adenosine from attaching there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than they otherwise would.

For many years, caffeine’s effects have been attributed to its inhibition of the production of phosphodiesterase, an enzyme that barks down the chemical called cyclic AMP. A number of neurotransmitters exert their effets by first increasing cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons. Therefore, prolonged periods at the elevated concentrations, as might be brought about by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could lead to a greater amount of neuron firing and, consequently, to behavioural stimulation. But Snyder et al point out that the caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than those that produce stimulation. Moreover, other compounds that block phosphodiesterase’s activity are not stimulants.

To buttress their case that caffeine acts instead by preventing adenosine binding, Snyder et al compared the stimulatory effects of a series of caffeine derivatives with their ability to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in the brains of mice. In general they reported the ability of the compounds to compare at the receptors correlates with their ability to stimulate locomotion in the mouse; i.e. the higher their capacity to bind at the receptors the higher their ability to stimulate locomotion. Theophylline a close structural relative of caffeine and the major stimulant in tea, was one of the most effective compounds in both regards.

There were some apparent exceptions to the general correlation observed between adenosinereceptor binding and stimulation. One of these was a compound called 3-isobutyl- I- methyl xanthine (IBMX), which bound very well but actually depressed mouse locomotion. Snyder et al suggest that this is not a major stumbling block to their hypothesis. The problem is that the compound has mixed effects in the brain, a not unusual occurrence with psychoactive drugs. Even caffeine which his generally known only for – its stimulatory effects, displays this property, depressing mouse locomotion at very low concentrations and stimulating it at higher ones.

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1.The primary purpose of the passage is to-
A. Discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood.
B. Present two explanations of a phenomenon and reconcile the differences between them.
C. Summarize two theories and suggest a third theory that overcomes the problems encountered in the first two.
D. Describe an alternative hypothesis and provide evidence and arguments that support it.
E. None of the above

2.According to Snyder et al, caffeine differs from adenosine in that caffeine-
A. Stimulates behavior in the mice and in humans, whereas adenosine stimulates behavior infhumans only
B. Has mixed effects in the brain, whereas adenosine has only a stimulatory effect
C. Increases cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons, whereas adenosine decreases suchf concentrations’
D. Permits release of neurotransmitters when it is bound to adenosine receptors, whereas adenosine inhibits such release
E. None of the above

3.In response to experimental results concerning IBMX, Snyder et al contended that it is not uncommon for psychoactive drugs to have
A. Mixed effects in the brain
B. Inhibitory effects on the brain
C. Close structural relationships with caffeine
D. Depressive effects on mouse locomotion
E. None of the above

4.According to Snyder et al, all of the following compounds can bind to specific receptors in the brain EXCEPT
A. IBMX
B. Caffeine
C. Adenosine
D. Phosphodiesterase
E. None of the above

5.Snyder et al suggests that caffeine’s ability to bind to A₁ and A ₂ receptors can be at least partially attributed to which of the following?
A. The chemical relationship between caffeine and phosphodiesterase
B. The structural relationship between caffeine and adenosine
C. The structural similarity between caffeine and neurotransmitters
D. The ability of caffeine to stimulate behavior
E. None of the above

6.The author quotes Snyder et al, most probably in order to-
A. Reveal some of the assumptions underlying their theory
B. Summarize a major finding of their experiments
C. Point out that their experiments were limited to the mice
D. Indicate that their experiments resulted only in general correlations
E. None of the above

7.Choose the word which is MOST similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage. Buttress
A. Brace
B. Subsisted
C. Endued
D. Stride
E. Rehearse

8.Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage. Locomotion
A. Intrusion
B. Expatiate
C. Difident
D. Demure
E. Maneuverability

9.Choose the word which is MOST opposite in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage. Stimulant
A. Extort
B. Abdicate
C. Wrench
D. Goad
E. Deterrent

10.Choose the word which is MOST opposite  in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the
passage. Hypothesis

A. Intrusion
B. Conjecture
C. Proof
D. Desecrated
E. Indignation


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Correct Answer:

  1. D. Describe an alternative hypothesis and provide evidence and arguments that support it. [ Refer to the The firstparagraph.]
  2. D. Permits release of neurotransmitters when it is bound to adenosine receptors, whereas adenosine inhibits such release. [ Refer to the The firstparagraph.]
  3. A. Mixed effects in the brain.
  4. D. Phosphodiesterase [ Refer to the The firstparagraph.]
  5. B. The structural relationship between caffeine and adenosine.
  6. B. Summarize a major finding of their experiments [ Refer to the The third paragraph.]
  7. A. Brace [Brace means make (a structure) stronger or firmer with wood, iron, or other forms of support.]
  8. E. Maneuverability
  9. E. Deterrent [Deterrent means a thing that discourages or is intended to discourage someone from doing something.]
  10. C. Proof [Hypothesis means a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation..]

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