Reading Comprehension Quiz -Set -17 : NABARD Grade B | IBPS PO | NICL AO | IBPS Clerk

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Reading Comprehension Quiz

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Q.Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

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The wakeup call that China represents to India is not limited to its showpiece urban centers or that New Delhi hopes India will experience the benefits that the Olympic Games have brought to Beijing. More pertinent is the comparison of the agricultural sectors of the two countries. Why and how has china managed to outstrip India in agriculture when 25 years ago the two countries were on par on most parameters? Both have traditionally been agrarian economies and over half their populations continue to depend on the land for their livelihood. With large populations and histories of famine, India and china share concern on issues such as food security.

However, while India’s agricultural sector is projected to grow by about 2.5 per cent this year a slide from the previous year’s growth; China’s has been steadily growing at between 4 per cent and 5 per cent over the last fifteen years. The widest divergence between India and China is in the profitable horticultural sector with the production of fruits and vegetables in china leaping from 60 million tons in 1980 compared to India’s 55 million tons at the same time, to 450 million tons in 2003 ahead of India’s corresponding 135 million tones. China’s added advantage lies in the more diversified composition of its agricultural sector with animal husbandry and fisheries which account for close to 45 per cent growth compared to 30 per cent for India. According to the latest report by the Economic Advisory council, the traditional excuses for India’s substandard performance in the farm sector are inadequate since India is placed favorably when compared to China in terms of quantity of arable land, average farm size, farm mechanization etc. the reasons for China having outperformed India are threefold: technological improvements accruing from research and development (china has over 1,000 R &D centers devoted to agriculture), investment in rural infrastructure and an increasingly liberalized agricultural policy moving away from self- sufficiency to leveraging the competitive advantage with a focus on “efficiency as much as equity”.
Investment in rural infrastructure, roads, storage facilities marketing facilities are also crucial but government support in India has mainly been through subsidies, not investment. There has been much debate about subsidies and their utility: the opposing view being that subsidies are against the market reforms and distort the market as well as reduce resource efficiency. In contrast to the 2.046 applications for the registration of new plant varieties in China over the past few years, data reveals that despite India having the largest number of agricultural scientists in the world, India’s current research track record is abysmal, equivalent to what china achieved in the 1980s. For from developing new strains, the number of  field crop varieties fell by 50 per cent between 1997 and 2001 despite the number of field crop varieties fell by 50 per cent between 1997 and 2001 despite the fact that there was sharp and sustained increase in funding.

One reason is that majority of the budget is eaten up by staff salaries with only 3 per cent being allotted for research. In contrast, most agricultural research centers in China must use Central government funding purely for research. Funds relating to salaries and other administrative incidentals must be generated by the centers themselves. The centers and scientists are thus encouraged to engage in joint ventures with private sector companies to form commercial signoffs from their research. In fact, research staffs are now being hired on a contract basis with pay based on performance and salaries raised proportionately for those who perform well. India needs to learn from China’s example and adopt a pragmatic approach if it has to meet its targets of the Eleventh Five year Plan.

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1.What has been the Major area of difference in the development of the agricultural sectors of India and China?
A. Quantity of arable land in China is far greater than in India.
B. Food security is not a concern for China as the country is basically self- sufficient
C. China has experienced substantial growth in production in allied agricultural activities like horticulture.
D. India’s agricultural sector is too diversified so it is difficult to channel funds for development.
E. None of the above

2.Which of the following is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage?
A. Agricultural status of china and India was equivalent a quarter of a century ago.
B. India’s current economic growth rate is half that of China.
C. China is traditionally an agrarian economy.
D. Agricultural research in India is inadequate.
E. None of the above

3.How is Chinese agricultural research facilities governed?
A. Salaries of staff are linked to performance and the hampers productive research.
B. Their funding comes from the government alone to prevent private companies from manipulating the direction of their research.
C. A fixed proportion of government grants is allotted to be utilized for administrative incidentals which cannot be exceeded.
D. None of the above
E. All of the above

4.Which of the following is an advantage that India holds over China with respect to the agricultural sector?
A. Lack of diversification of the agricultural sector.
B. Superior technology and farming practices
C. Greater prevalence of farm mechanization
D. Provision of fertilizer and power subsidies.
E. None of the above

5.Why was there a drop in development of new crop varieties for five years from 997?
A. Government funding for research fell during that period.
B. Funds were diverted during this period to agricultural mechanization
C. The private sector was not allowed to fund research.
D. None of the above
E. All of the above

6.Which of the following cannot be said about Indian agricultural universities?
A. Attendance is poor because of the dwindling funds to carry out research.
B. Enrollments of students and qualified staff have fallen because of the lack of funds for salaries.
C. Allotment for research funding by the government, is non-existent

A. Only (B)
B. Both (A) & (B)
C. Both (B) & (C)
D. All (A), (B) & (C)
E. None of the above

7.Which of the following is not responsible for China’s successful transformation of its agricultural sector?
A. Change in philosophy from self- sufficiency to competitiveness and efficiency
B. Greater allocation for subsidies
C. Increased internment marketing and distribution network

A. Only (B)
B. Both (B) & (C)
C. North (A) & (C)
D. All (A), (B), & (C)
E. None of the above

8.Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage. Steadily
A. abhorrence
B. repugnance
C. constant
D. nausea
E. loathing

9.Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage. Distort
A. abhorrence
B. pervert
C. allure
D. nausea
E. loathing

10.Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in passage. Engage
A. Sovereign
B. indigenous
C. primeval
D. Dismiss
E. primordial

 


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Correct Answer:

  1. C. China has experienced substantial growth in production in allied agricultural activities like horticulture. [ This can be found from the third sentence of the 2nd paragraph.]
  2. B. India’s current economic growth rate is half that of China. [ The passage talks only about agricultural growth rate, not economic growth in general.]
  3. D. None of the above
  4. C. Greater prevalence of farm mechanization [ This can be found from the 10th sentence of the 2nd paragraph.]
  5. D. None of the above
  6. D. All (A), (B) & (C)
  7. A. Only (B)
  8. C. constant
  9. B. pervert
  10. D. Dismiss

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