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Reading Comprehension Quiz
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Q.Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
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Despite the appointment of multiple commissions to reform the governance of police forces across the country, the state of police forces in the country has not changed. Police forces have received no more than cosmetic treatment at the hands of the government. There is a perceptible dissatisfaction about policing in India among the people. It is argued that this poor performance is mainly due to poor resourcing, and that the police require a higher quantum of budgetary allocations.
Various studies have shown that budget outlays for the police only meet the establishment cost. Salary is the main component of budget, consuming almost 90% of the total allocation. The residual amount covers costs of domestic travel, maintenance of motor vehicles and petrol cost. Budgets, as they stand, barely allocate funds for operational expenses of running police stations, or maintenance costs for computer systems, arms and ammunition. Police budgets have focused solely on manpower. On an annual basis, budgets do not have allocations towards capacity building, and are not structured to achieve desired outcomes. The police also suffer from inadequate expenditure management. Expenses on items other than salary are not monitored frequently enough. There is no investment in basic infrastructure and human resources in policing. The police continue to lack basic amenities and support.
The Modernisation of Police Forces Scheme to fund deficiency in state police infrastructure has been in existence since 1969-70, the cost of which is shared by the Centre and states. Annual allocations to this fund were raised substantially, following the BPR&D study. Since 2000, the focus has been to build secure police stations, increase the supply of police housing, improve forensic laboratory, equipment, training infrastructure, communication systems and mobility of the police force. However, the scheme has had limited success. The scheme has been able to fill very limited gaps compared to the actual requirements of the police forces. Inadequate training and lack of funds for repair and maintenance of assets created under the scheme continue to pose challenges. Under-utilization of funds as a result of delays in release of funds and cumbersome asset-procurement processes is another challenge.
As with any budget, police budgets too need to be tied to outcomes. Broadly, the desired outcomes of policing are: safety and security of citizens, Collection of intelligence, Investigation of crime, Sound public order.
First and foremost, aligning budgets to these outcomes will require outlays to fully cover the office or operating expenses of the police station. It is estimated that office or operation costs for running a police station in an urban area are around Rs5–6 lakh per year, while the figure for rural areas is between Rs4-5 lakh per year. This cost estimate covers expenses on any item of miscellaneous nature, such as stationery, translations, etc., while performing police duty. The second input to achieve these outcomes is to build capacity within the police. This may be through focused training to keep pace with the changing nature of crime and prevention techniques, or the creation of IT infrastructure for tracking cases to tackle delays due to mounting pendency. It will also require investment in management techniques, soft skills, new technology, and building of databases to allow for seamless access to information, among other heads.
As the law enforcement agency of the government and the first point of contact in the criminal justice system, the police is critical for sound law and order, and a good quality of life. It needs to be emphasised that police reforms are absolutely essential if India is to emerge as a great power. A dynamic process of evaluating the needs of effective policing, and aligning the budgets accordingly is an important step towards achieving a well-functioning police.
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1.According to the passage, what are the problems associated with police budgets?
A. Expenses other than income are often neglected.
B. Lack of funding in basic infrastructure and human resources.
C. Inappropriate allotment towards capacity building.
D. Both (a) and (c) are true
E. All are true
2.What should be done to modernize the police forces in the country?
A. Policies and schemes made by the government must be implemented properly.
B. Building the secured police stations, improvement of the forensic laboratory is also required to modernize the police forces.
C. Scrutinizing crime cases and prevention methods needs to be modernized by proper training.
D. Security of Policemen must be ensured.
E. All of the above
3.According to the passage, what is/are the covet consequences of policing?
(i) Safety and security of citizens
(ii) crime perusal
(iii) Discipline in Police forces
A. Only (i) is true
B. Only (ii) is true
C. Both (i) and (ii) are true
D. Both (ii) and (iii) are true
E. All are true
4.Which of the following is false in the context of the passage?
A. Salary is the main component of the budget, consuming almost 90% of the total allocation.
B. The second input to achieve these outcomes is to build capacity besides the police.
C. There is a perceptible dissatisfaction about policing in India among the people.
D. The residual amount covers costs of domestic travel, maintenance of motor vehicles and petrol cost.
E. The cost estimate covers expenses on any item of miscellaneous nature, such as stationery, translations.
5.Which of the following statements is true in context of the passage?
A. Police forces have received no more than cosmetic treatment at the hands of the government.
B. Under-utilization of funds as a result of delays in release of funds and cumbersome assetprocurement processes is another challenge.
C. The police continue to lack basic amenities and support.
D. Budgets, as they stand, barely allocate funds for operational expenses of running police stations, or maintenance costs for computer systems, arms and ammunition.
E. All are true.
6.Which title is most appropriate for the passage?
A. Modernization of the Police Forces
B. Reforming the governance of the police forces
C. Budgeting for the Police
D. Budgetary allocations among Police forces
E. Investigation of the crime
7.Which of the following words is similar to the word cumbersome as used in the passage?
8.Which of the following words is opposite to the word “ miscellaneous” as used in the passage?
9.The primary purpose of the passage is to-
A. discuss the financial implications of a recent shift in attitudes among workers
B. propose a new approach for businesses to increase loyalty among their employees
C. defend certain business practices in light of criticism of corporations, actions in a recent past
D. speculate about possible long term benefits of a recent change in the general business climate
E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationships
10.The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?
A. Organizations tend to operate more effectively when they have a high manager-to-employee ratio.
B. Organizations can move their operations to less expensive locations more easily when they have fewer permanent employees.
C. Organizations have found that they often receive higher quality work when they engage in outsourcing.
D. Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses if the demand for their product or service decreases.
E. Organizations are under increasing pressure to adopt new technologies that often obviate the need for certain workers
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- E. All are true [ In the lines of the second paragraph, “On an annual basis ………human. Hence all the given sentences are true.]
- B. [In the third statement of third paragraph, “ Since 2000, the focus has been………mobility of the police force”. Hence statement (b) is correct.]
- C. Both (i) and (ii) are true [ In the fourth paragraph, “the desired outcomes of policing are: safety and security of citizens, Collection of intelligence, Investigation of crime, Sound public order”. So option C is correct.]
- B. [ In the fourth sentence of second last paragraph, “The second input to achieve these outcomes is to build capacity within the police.” Hence statement (b) is false.]
- E. All are true.
- C. Budgeting for the Police
- B. Cumbersome means large or heavy and therefore difficult to carry or use. Hence ‘ hefty’ has the same meaning as cumbersome.
- B. Idiosyncratic [Miscellaneous means “of different types or from different nature”. Idiosyncratic means relating to idiosyncrasy; peculiar or individual. Hence both are opposite in meanings.]
- E. consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee relationship,
- D. [ In the second paragraph, “Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs.” ]
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