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Reading Comprehension for IBPS Clerk 2017
Directions: (1-10) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words are in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Our home is packed with electrical appliances and electronic equipment and all of it does exactly what it is designed to do. The AC cools the air temperature and lowers the humidity within an area; the washing machine washes our clothes when we press the ‘start’ button; the fridge works quietly 24/7 to keep food fresh; the TV entertains us with programming when we turn it on and select a channel; and the smoke detector in a residential building warns us when it detects smoke. To power all these appliances, India has 211 GW of electricity — the world’s fifth largest producer of power. However, nearly 400 million Indians still lack access to electricity, and even for those who have access, the supply is erratic and of poor quality, especially in rural India. Electricity demand tends to peak during the day and ebb overnight; forcing producers to overbuild generation facilities to meet peak demand, only to have significant capacity sit idle during slower periods.
In October 2012, according to the Ministry of Power, there was a deficit of 9.1 percent between the demand for power and its supply, an amount corresponding to 7,654 million units. Further straining the supply-demand gap, Indian consumers, businesses, and industries are seeking even more electricity. Experts predict that by 2035, India’s demand for power will double.
Today, we are paying more for the electricity that we need and, more important, over the long-term we will be using more electricity than the planet can support. Everything must get “smarter”: smarter appliances, smarter homes, smarter cars, and smarter cities. In fact, we need to live in a smarter world where everything is connected via the “Internet of things” and instead of working in isolation, every machine, appliance, home and car should be able to share information with its neighbours, with the infrastructure and with service providers.
By allowing everything to communicate, the smart network will enable electricity suppliers to balance the peaks and valleys of demand, reduce costs, use significantly less energy and use that energy more efficiently. The washing machine provides a good example. Today, when we press the ‘start’ button, the machine begins the wash cycle. It doesn’t know what other appliances are running in the home, let alone on the street or in the neighbourhood, but in the near future it may.
In the smart home, the washing machine, the fridge and the AC will communicate with each other as well as with the smart electricity meter, the home gateway and with the electricity supplier and together, with the homeowner’s inputs on priorities, will decide which appliances should run at what time to optimise energy use and reduce peak demands. This will lower costs for the utility and for the consumer. A typical solution could delay the start of the wash cycle until the AC and the fridge have confirmed their ability to operate without drawing power until the wash completes. In other words, the AC “knows” the humidity and temperature of the room won’t rise significantly and the fridge “knows” the food will remain fresh while the washing machine is running so the three appliances don’t draw power at the same time.The benefit, for us, the utility and the world, is much closer matching of electricity demand and supply. This is extremely valuable because mains electricity cannot be stored, so it must be generated to support peak demand. In fact, utility companies today supplement their main power stations with smaller ones that operate only when expected demand surges.
In the metro cities of India, AC alone consumes up to 40 per cent of power. At the end of July 2012, the country witnessed its worst-ever power blackout, leaving more than seven States in the dark for 48 hours. In India, roughly 27,000 MW of electricity is wasted every day. By ensuring that the washing machine, fridge, and AC synchronise operations to minimise total power consumed, the smarter home will reduce waste. But this is just the tip of the iceberg. Imagine if our electricity supplier could communicate with every smart home in the community, continuously checking on the temperature setting and synchronising with every AC to retain that homeowner’s preferred temperature.While allowing only half the homes to draw power at any time, peak requirements would drop, costs would fall, bills would shrink and millions of tons of CO2 emissions would be saved.
While this is not science fiction, it is, unfortunately, not yet a commercial reality. We are getting closer, though: all the key technologies, including wireless and power line communications and low-power/low-cost high-performance embedded processors, already exist and now pioneering chip companies are working with other leaders across the smart-home ecosystem to accelerate the evolution of this essential next step to improve the quality of our life and the efficiency of our use of power.
1.What is the experts’ prediction for 2035?
a. India will become home to world’s largest solar power plant.
b. India will become the second power surplus country.
c. Around 70% of power in India will be generated by solar means.
d. India’s demand for power consumption will get doubled.
e. India will become the powerhouse of affordable energy across the country.
2.According to the passage what is the meaning of “internet of things’’?
A. Internet development in which everyday objects have network connectivity.
B. Manual sharing of information by machines with their neighbours, infrastructure and service providers.
C. Where smart home appliances do not work in isolation.
a. Only A
b. Only B
c. Both B and C
d. Both A and C
e. All A, B and C
3.According to the passage which of the following holds TRUE about the present electricity consumption scenario in India?
a. Washing Machines in India alone consumes up to 40 per cent of power.
b. Electricity demand in India tends to peak during the day and declines overnight.
c. There is a deficit of 9.1 per cent between the demand for power and its supply in India
d. Around 10,000 MW of electricity is wasted every day in India.
e. All are true
4.What according to the author is/are the benefits of a smart network?
a. more efficient utilization of energy.
b. reduction of the cost of consumption and generation of power.
c. enable electricity suppliers to balance the peaks and valleys of demand.
d. improve the quality of life of people using smart network.
e. All of the above
5.Which of the following is INCORRECT as per the passage?
A. India is world’s third largest power producer.
B. India has 111 GW of electricity
C. In October 2012 there was a deficit of 20.5 per cent between the demand for power and its supply.
a. Only A
b. Only B
c. Only C
d. All A, B and C are correct
e. All A, B and C are incorrect
6.The communication between smart appliances, smart electricity meter, home gateway, electricity supplier combined with the homeowner’s inputs on priorities will lead to –
a. reduced time for homeowners in processing their work through smart machines
b. an excessive use of energy leading to a rise in cost of energy consumption.
c. optimised energy use and reduced peak demands.
d. an actual growth in infrastructure development.
e. Not mentioned in the passage
7.Which of the following is farthest in meaning from the word Erratic as used in the passage?
8.Which of the following is closest in meaning to Ebb as used in the passage?
9.Which of the following is farthest in meaning from Accelerate as used in the passage?
10.Which of the following is closest in meaning to Supplement as used in the passage?
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