Reading Comprehension for SBI PO/Clerk Prelims 2019 | Set – 81

Reading Comprehension for SBI PO/Clerk Prelims 2019
Reading Comprehension for SBI PO/Clerk Prelims 2019

Reading Comprehension for SBI PO/Clerk Prelims 2019

Reading Comprehension for SBI PO/Clerk 2019. Reading Comprehension Practice Set. New Pattern Reading Comprehension for  SBI PO/Clerk Prelims 2019. New Pattern English Study Material for SBI PO/Clerk 2019. Welcome to the Let’s Study Together online English section. If you are preparing for SBI PO exam, you will come across a section on the English language. Here we are providing you Reading Comprehension for SBI PO /Clerk Prelims 2019, based on the latest pattern of your daily practice.

Important Reading Comprehension Questions for SBI PO/Clerk & LIC AAO 2019 will help you learn concepts on important topics in English Section. This “Reading Comprehension for SBI PO/Clerk Prelims” is also important for other banking exams such as SBI Clerk, IDBI Executive and Syndicate PO, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS RRB Officer, IBPS RRB Office Assistant, IBPS SO, SBI SO and other competitive exams.

 SBI PO/Clerk Prelims Reading Comprehension | Set – 81


Directions:(1-5) Read the given passage carefully and answer the questions.

No one today quite understands how they did it, but people in the Stone Age could turn ribbons of birch bark into sticky, black tar. They used this tar to make tools, fixing arrowheads on arrows and blades onto axes. And they chewed it, as evidenced by teeth marks in some lumps. These unassuming lumps of chewed birch-bark tar turn out to be an extraordinary source of ancient DNA. This month, two separate research groups posted preprints describing DNA from the tar in Stone Age Scandinavia. The two papers have not yet been peer reviewed, but they are already generating excitement about what they herald.

“It’s really amazing,” says Pontus Skoglund, an ancient-DNA researcher at Francis Crick Institute who was not involved with either study. Ancient DNA from human bones and teeth have recently revolutionized the study of the past, but many cultures over time did not bury their dead and left no remains to analyze. Chewing gum could fill in some of the gaps. It could also reveal a wealth of additional information, such as who helped make the Stone Age tools, what they ate, and what bacteria lived in their teeth.

The first new paper describes human DNA from three 10,000-year-old pieces of birch-bark tar, all found at a site called Huseby Klev in western Sweden. Having never extracted DNA from tar before, the team tried a protocol originally designed to extract DNA from feces—and it worked. Each piece of tar appears to have been chewed by just one person. In total, the tar pieces captured the DNA of two females and one male.

The site where the lumps were found was littered with the raw material and leftovers from making stone blades. From this, the authors suggest that it was actually a site for making tools, and chewing birch-bark tar was a step in the production process. If so, it would mean both men and women made tools during the Stone Age. And because some of the teeth marks appear to be from baby teeth, it suggests that children had a role, too. All this hints at the social structure of Stone Age society. “The most exciting part is how close we can come to the culture,” says Natalija Kashuba, a researcher at the University of Oslo and first author on the paper.

Ancient DNA can be prone to contamination from modern humans handling the sample. In this case, however, the DNA in the chewing gum appears to be genuinely ancient. “It’s very clear the DNA they get out has ancestry that was only there around 8,000 or 5,000 years ago, and it’s not really there anymore,” Skoglund says. The DNA of the three people looked a lot like the DNA of other hunter-gatherers who lived in northern Europe around that time.

1.Where did the people in Stone Age use the black tar obtained from birch bark?

1. They used it to make tools.

2. They used it to fix arrow heads on blades onto axes.

3. They used it to build bridges.

A. Only 1
B. Only 1 and 2
C. Only 2
D. Only 2 and 3
E. All 1, 2 and 3

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – B. Only 1 and 2

Refer to the  first paragraph.

2.What information can be found in the birch-bark tar chewing gum?

A It could provide information about the food the people of the stone age ate.
B It could provide information about the eating habits of the people of the stone age.
C It could provide information about the dressing habit of the people of the stone age.
D It could provide information about the professions of the people of the old age.
E None of the above

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – A. It could provide information about the food the people of the stone age ate.

Explanation: Refer to the second paragraph.

3.As per the passage, which of the following statements are correct?

1. DNA was recovered from the birch-bark tar chewing gum.

2. The tar pieces discovered contained the DNA of two males and one female.

3. The birch-bark tar chewing gum was 10,000 years old.

A Only 1and 2
B Only 1
C Only 2
D Only 2 and 3
E All 1, 2 and 3

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – B. Only 1

Explanation: Refer to the Third paragraph.

4.What information was revealed from the site where the lumps were discovered?

A It was found that the site was a place to eat.
B It was found that the site was a place for making tools.
C It provided information about the different kind of tools.
D It provided information about the different ways used by the people of the stone age to make tools.
E None of the above

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – B. It was found that the site was a place for making tools.

Explanation: Refer to the Fourth paragraph.

5.Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

1. DNA can reveal the gender of a person.

2. Only male members made tools in the stone age.

3. The stone age society was an egalitarian society.

A Only 1
B Only 1 and 2
C Only 2
D Only 2 and 3
E All 1,2 and 3

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – A. Only 1

Explanation:

(a) is the right answer as only 1 is correct. The DNA evidence revealed that the birch-bark tar chewing gum discovered at the site had the DNA of two females and one male.

2 is incorrect. As per the research paper females were also involved in tool making.

3 is incorrect. AN egalitarian society is one that is based on the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. The information provided in the passage is not sufficient to infer this.

Directions:(6-10) Read the following passage and answer the questions.

Plato (427-347 B.C.E.) was the son of Athenian aristocrats. He grew up in a time of upheaval in Athens, especially at the conclusion of the Peloponnesian war, when Athens was conquered by Sparta. Debra Nails says, “Plato would have been 12 when Athens lost her empire with the revolt of the subject allies; 13 when democracy fell briefly to the oligarchy of Four Hundred…; [and]14 when democracy was restored”. We cannot be sure when he met Socrates. Although ancient sources report that he became Socrates’ follower at age 18, he might have met Socrates much earlier through the relationship between Socrates and Plato’s uncle, Charmides, in 431 B.C.E. He might have known Socrates, too, through his “musical” education, which would have consisted of anything under the purview of the muses, that is, everything from dancing to reading, writing, and arithmetic. He also seems to have spent time with Cratylus, the Heraclitean, which probably had an impact primarily on his metaphysics and epistemology.

Plato had aspirations for the political life, but several untoward events pushed him away from the life of political leadership, not the least of which was Socrates’ trial and conviction. While the authenticity of Plato’s Seventh Letter is debated among scholars, it might give us some insight into Plato’s biography:

“At last I came to the conclusion that all existing states are badly governed and the condition of their laws practically incurable, without some miraculous remedy and the assistance of fortune; and I was forced to say, in praise of true philosophy , that from her height alone was it possible to discern what the nature of justice is, either in the state or in the individual, and that the ills of the human race would never end until either those who are sincerely and truly lovers of wisdom [that is, philosophers] come into political power, or the rulers of our cities, by the grace of God, learn true philosophy.” (Letter VII)

 Plato saw any political regime without the aid of philosophy or fortune as fundamentally corrupt. This attitude, however, did not turn Plato entirely from politics. He visited Sicily three times, where two of these trips were failed attempts at trying to turn the tyrant Dionysius II to the life of philosophy. He thus returned to Athens and focused his efforts on the philosophical education he had begun at his Academy.

Since Plato wrote dialogues, there is a fundamental difficulty with any effort to identify just what Plato himself thought. Plato never appears in the dialogues as an interlocutor. If he was voicing any of his own thoughts, he did it through the mouthpiece of particular characters in the dialogues, each of which has a particular historical context. Thus, any pronouncement about Plato’s “theory” of this or that must be tentative at best. Thus, while we can indubitably highlight recurring themes and theoretical insights throughout Plato’s work, we must be wary of committing Plato in any wholesale fashion to a particular view.

 Perhaps the most famous of Plato’s metaphysical concepts is his notion of the so-called “forms” or “ideas.” The Greek words that we translate as “form” or “idea” are eidos and idea. Both of these words are rooted in verbs of seeing. Thus, the eidos of something is its look, shape, or form. But, as many philosophers do, Plato manipulates this word and has it refer to immaterial entities. Why is it that one can recognize that a maple is a tree, an oak is a tree, and a Japanese fir is a tree? What is it that unites all of our concepts of various trees under a unitary category of Tree? It is the form of “tree” that allows us to understand anything about each and every tree, but Plato does not stop there.

The forms can be interpreted not only as purely theoretical entities, but also as immaterial entities that give being to material entities. Each tree, for example, is what it is insofar as it participates in the form of Tree. Each human being, for example, is different from the next, but each human being is human to the extent that he/she participates in the form of Human Being. This material-immaterial emphasis seems directed ultimately towards Plato’s epistemology. That is, if anything can be known, it is the forms. Since things in the world are changing and temporal, we cannot know them; therefore, forms are unchanging and eternal beings that give being to all changing and temporal beings in the world, if knowledge is to be certain and clear. In other words, we cannot know something that is different from one moment to the next. The forms are therefore pure ideas that unify and stabilize the multiplicity of changing beings in the material world.

6.Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

1. Plato never met Socrates himself.

2. Plato believed that humanity’s misfortunes can be alleviated only when people who truly know philosophy become kings

3. There are many scholars who believe that Plato’s Seventh Letter was not written by Plato.

A Only 1
B 1 and 2
C Only 2
D 2 and 3
E Only 3

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – D. 2 and 3

Explanation:

Refer to the line in the passage: “Although ancient sources report that he became Socrates’ follower at age 18, he might have met Socrates much earlier”. It states that Plato might have met Socrates before he turned 18. Thus, 1 is an incorrect statement and cannot be inferred from the passage.

Refer to the Plato’s line in the passage: “the ills of the human race would never end until either those who are sincerely and truly lovers of wisdom [that is, philosophers] come into political power”. It states that Plato believed that only true lovers of wisdom (i.e. philosophers) can rid the human race of its ills. Thus, 2 can be inferred from the passage.

Refer to the line in the passage: “While the authenticity of Plato’s Seventh Letter is debated among scholars”. It states that many scholars believe that Plato’s Seventh Letter is not authentic. Thus, 3 can be inferred from the passage.

7. As per the passage, which of the following statements is/are true about Plato’s concept of “Eidos”?

1. Eidos of an object is related to its look or shape.

2. Eidos are material entities that give being to immaterial entities.

3. Eidos are unchanging and eternal beings that give rise to all changing and temporal beings.

A Only 1
B 1 and 2
C Only 2
D 2 and 3
E 1 and 3

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – E. 1 and 3

Explanation:

“Edios” are also known as “forms”.

Refer to the line in the passage: “the eidos of something is its look, shape, or form”. Thus, 1 is correct.

Refer to the line in the passage: “forms can be interpreted not only as purely theoretical entities, but also as immaterial entities that give being to material entities”. It states that forms (Eidos) are immaterial entities that give being to material entities. Therefore, 2 is incorrect.

Refer to the line in the passage: “forms are unchanging and eternal beings that give being to all changing and temporal beings in the world”. Therefore, 3 is correct.

8. As per the passage, how old was Plato when he first met Socrates?

A 18 years
B 19 years
C 20 years
D 16 years
E Cannot be determined

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – E. Cannot be determined

Explanation: Refer to the line in the passage: “We cannot be sure when he met Socrates”

9.As per the passage, which of the following statements are not correct?

1. Plato didn’t have political aspirations.

2. Plato appears in his dialogues as an interlocutor.

3. Plato believed that things in this world are temporal.

A Only 1
B 1 and 2
C Only 2
D 2 and 3
E 1 and 3

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer – B. 1 and 2

Explanation:

Refer to the line in the passage: “Plato had aspirations for the political life, but several untoward events pushed him away”. Therefore, 1 is incorrect.

Refer to the line in the passage: “Plato never appears in the dialogues as an interlocutor”. Therefore, 2 is incorrect.

Refer to the line in the passage: “Since things in the world are changing and temporal we cannot know them; therefore, forms are unchanging..”. It states that Plato believed that things in this world are constantly changing but forms are eternal. Thus, 3 is correct.

10.Which of the following words has a meaning opposite to “indubitably” used in the passage?

A Absolute
B Compelling
C Difficult
D Doubtful
E Transcendent

Show Correct Answers

Correct Answer  – D. Doubtful

‘Indubitably’ means unquestionable. Its antonyms are doubtful, questionably, dubiously, etc.‘Compelling’ means invoking attention or interest in an irresistible way.

‘Transcendent’ means beyond the range of normal or physical human experience.

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