Reading Comprehension for NABARD Grade A 2019
Reading Comprehension for NABARD Grade A & B 2019. English Study Material for NABARD 2019. Reading Comprehension Practice Set. New Pattern Reading Comprehension for NABARD Exam. If you are preparing for NABARD Grade A & B 2019, you will come across a section on the English language. Here we are providing you Reading Comprehension for NABARD Grade A & B 2019, based on the latest pattern of your daily practice.
Reading Comprehension for NABARD Grade A 2019 will help you learn concepts on important topics in English Section. This “Reading Comprehension for NABARD Grade A” is also important for other banking exams such as SBI Clerk, IDBI Executive and Syndicate PO, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS RRB Officer, IBPS RRB Office Assistant, IBPS SO, SBI SO and other competitive exams.
Reading Comprehension for NABARD 2019 | Set – 1
Directions:(1-5) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.
The government on Saturday sought to clarify that it has in no way infringed upon the autonomy of the Reserve Bank of India and that it “fully respects the independence and autonomy” of the central bank. This comes a day after the United Forum of Reserve Bank Officers & Employees were up in arms and wrote to RBI Governor Urjit Patel voicing their dissatisfaction about what they perceived was an impingement of the central bank’s autonomy by the government when the Finance Ministry reportedly decided to send a joint secretary to coordinate the RBI’s currency chest operations. “There has been a report in sections of the press that some unions have alleged infringement of the autonomy of the Reserve Bank of India,” the Finance Ministry said in a statement on Saturday. “It is categorically stated that the Government fully respects the independence and autonomy of the Reserve Bank of India.” “Consultations between the Government and the RBI are undertaken on various matters of public importance wherever such consultation is mandated by law or has evolved as a practice,” the statement added. “Consultations mandated by law or as evolved by practice should not be taken as infringement of autonomy of RBI.” “If true, this (the sending of the joint secretary to the RBI) is most unfortunate and we take strong exception to this measure of the Government as impinging on RBI autonomy and its statutoryas well as operational jurisdiction,” the union’s letter to Mr. Patel said.“May we request you that as the Governor of RBI, its highest functionary and protector of its autonomy and prestige, you will please do the needful urgently to do away with this unwarranted interference from the Ministry of Finance, and assure the staff accordingly, as the staff feel humiliated,” the letter added. The statement comes at a time when two former RBI governors—Y.V. Reddy and Bimal Jalan—openly raised concerns over erosion of the central bank’s autonomy. RBI and the government have come under a lot of criticism for their handling of the entire demonetisation exercise with many policy flip flops in the 50-day period. Questions have also been raised at the fact that the government initiated the process of demonetisation by suggesting to the RBI board on 7 November to invalidate high value currency.The board met on the evening of 8 November and gave its nod following which Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the cancellation of the legal tender of the old Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes in an address to the nation later that evening. This led to many expressing concern that the government’s move dilutes one of central bank’s core function of issuance of currency.
1. What is the reason of dissatisfaction of the RBI members against the government?
A. The government’s tendency to discuss on matters with the RBI on financial issues.
B. The government refused to respect the independence and autonomy of RBI.
C. The Finance Ministry reportedly decided to send a joint secretary to coordinate the RBI’s currency chest operations.
D. The announcement of demonetization and the criticism it had to face because of it.
E. Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the cancellation of the legal tender of the old Rs500 and Rs1,000 notes in an address to the nation.
2.What was seen as an action of disturbance from the government previously?
A. The announcement of demonetization.
B. The clear statements of the Government not respecting the autonomy of the RBI.
C. Finance Ministry’s justification of its steps as consultation with the RBI.
D. A lot of flip-flops of policies after the demonetization announcement
E. Efforts of the Government to establish its supremacy over RBI
3.What had former Governors of the RBI indicated?
A. The autonomy of RBI was properly maintained.
B. The autonomy of RBI is getting lost with the BJP government
C. The autonomy of RBI is getting degraded
D. The autonomy of RBI has always been superficial.
E. The government plays the actual role and the RBI had to follow it always.
4. What has been the demand of the RBI employees?
A. To regulate some functions of the government
B. To increase the power of the RBI.
C. To stop allowing the government consult with the RBI.
D. To maintain the autonomy of the RBI.
E. None of the above
5. What idea did demonetization create about the RBI and its relationship with the Government?
A. It reflected the cooperative relationship between the two bodies.
B. It was seen as a method to show the supremacy of the government.
C. It was seen as a productive step on the part of the government.
D. It was seen as an interference of the government in the functioning of the RBI.
E. The employees considered the government’s act as a breach of autonomy.
Directions(6-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.
Today’s so-called crisis of globalisation is nothing more than a new variable of the old battle between protectionism and free trade. On the one hand, it is the tribalists while on the other it is the globalists. On one side, there are the anti-Amazon, pro-retailers, losers of a global challenge, while on the other, there are the pro-Amazon, e-commerce winners.
Nothing more, really. The opening of trade walls has accelerated industrial evolution in such a way that workers have had to learn to adapt to almost every generation. The difference, today, is that the evolution didn’t happen within a lifetime, but a few times within that lifetime. This is why the Indian farmer, who initially moved to the city to work in a call centre, had to reinvent himself as an Uber driver and is now worried about driverless cars — all within one lifetime.
Technological innovations are what accelerate the rhythm of change. The medium is the message all over again. It is the transformation of technology that affects society, not whatever that technology delivers (news, electricity, TV series). And this is why in the United States and the United Kingdom and in some parts of Europe, so many 50-somethings, unemployed, disgruntled voters who found it hard to reinvent themselves ended up voting for someone who promised to bring back an impossible past — a greater America, a more British Britain, whatever that may mean.
Up until 20 to 30 years ago, you could reach your pension age before a new radical evolution in the job market, which created its winners and losers. Today, the challenge is that evolutionary shifts happen not just once before reaching pensionable age, but often. This is what causes globalisation’s discontent. Blue collar workers from the mid-West cannot move to Silicon Valley; it’s a totally different skill set, and only few can manage it.
U.S. President Donald Trump’s and Brexit’s victories can be seen as a sort of “revenge of the losers”. The victims of the system described above decided to vote for someone who promised to protect them. Ludicrous. And, in fact, little has been done by Mr. Trump or British Prime Minister Theresa May to help those workers. And little is being done. Their standards of living have not improved. Or have certainly not returned to previous levels. Nor is there any policy in motion indicating that the previous levels will return. There won’t be any promised return to the past. Which doesn’t mean the economy will not thrive. It just won’t bring back the same old jobs to the unskilled.
For example, the latest U.S. tax reform promises to lower corporate taxes, rehashing the ancient myth job, the “trickle down” theory, will not impact the lower middle classes who voted for Mr. Trump. At the dangerous cost of increasing the deficit and widening the hole, Mr. Trump is lowering too high corporate taxes to bring them down to European levels.
It would seem to make sense even though the impact on total taxation will be marginal. Lowering tax on capital may increase wages for those skilled workers whose productivity will be positively affected by increased demand for capital intensive work, but while engineers might see an increase in their wages, the unskilled won’t benefit directly from it.
In other words, instead of fighting the ills of globalisation, Mr. Trump has found a way to economically hit the coastal electorate who mocked and railed against him — the Hillary Clinton voters. By lowering the maximal for family deductions and real estate taxes, he has hit those middle to upper middle classes in the east and west coasts who hate him. They are the ones who will not benefit from this reform. This is what he’ll obtain with this tax reform. Brilliant from his point of view because the reform dips into the pockets of people who never have and never will vote for him.
U.S. manufacturing is down to 11.7% of U.S. GDP (2016), while farming agriculture is only 1% (2015). America produces services such as Amazon, Google and Facebook; these are the richest corporations. Their expansion is thriving globally. And so is the expansion of other multinational corporations.
Even though the discontent of globalisation is a leftover of the crisis of 2008, today we don’t see that it will really impact globalisation seriously. At least, so far, we don’t see the results of this desire to raise barriers. Globalisation is here to stay.Manual scavenging refers to the practice of manually cleaning, carrying, disposing or handling in any manner, human excreta from dry latrines and sewers. It often involves using the most basic of tools such as buckets, brooms and baskets. The practice of manual scavenging is linked to India’s caste system where so-called lower castes were expected to perform this job. Manual scavengers are amongst the poorest and most disadvantaged communities in India. In 1993, India banned the employment of people as manual scavengers. In 2013, landmark new legislation in the form of the Manual Scavengers Act was passed which seeks to reinforce this ban by prohibiting manual scavenging in all forms and ensures the rehabilitation of manual scavengers to be identified through a mandatory survey. Despite progress, manual scavenging persists in India. According to the India Census 2011, there are more than 2.6 million dry latrines in the country. There are 13,14,652 toilets where human excreta is flushed in open drains, 7,94,390 dry latrines where the human excreta is cleaned manually. Seventy three percent of these are in rural areas and 27 percent are in urban areas.According to the House Listing and Housing Census 2011, states such as Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal account for more than 72 percent of the insanitary latrines in India. The Government of India has adopted a two-pronged strategy of eliminating insanitary latrines through demolition and conversion into sanitary latrines, and developing a comprehensive rehabilitation package for manual scavengers through a survey. However, while manual scavenging for many may have ended as a form of employment, the stigma and discrimination associated with it lingers on, making it difficult for former or liberated manual scavengers to secure alternate livelihoods and raising the fear that people could once again return to manual scavenging in the absence of other opportunities to support their families. Correctly identifying manual scavengers remains a key challenge. A comprehensive rehabilitation package has recently been put together that includes livelihoods and skill development, access to education for children of former manual scavengers and alternate livelihoods. In 1993, the Government of India enacted the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act which prohibited the employment of manual scavengers for manually cleaning dry latrines and also the construction of dry toilets, that is, toilets that do not operate with a flush. It provided for imprisonment of upto a year and a fine. In 2013, this was followed by the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013, which is wider in scope and importantly, acknowledged the urgency of rehabilitating manual scavengers.The key features of the Act were it prohibited the construction or maintenance of insanitary toilets, engagement or employment of anyone as a manual scavenger, a person from being engaged or employed for hazardous cleaning of a sewer or a septic tank. Its violations could result in a years’ imprisonment or a fine of INR 50,000 or both and offences under the act are cognizable and non-bailable.Manual scavengers are at a double whammy. They are members of lower castes and as such, face enormous discrimination in society, and second, are disadvantaged because they are manual scavengers who clean human excreta. The challenge of rehabilitation is urgent, and requires a comprehensive approach that moves beyond expanding income generation or providing loans, to focus on various aspects crucial to secure the future of the next generation of liberated manual scavengers.
6.What is the central idea of the passage?
A. An overview of manual scavenging, it’s threats and the measures being taken to eradicate it.
B. To highlight the growing challenges of manual scavenging.
C. To give a personal judgement on manual scavenging
D.To criticize manual scavenging.
E. To criticize manual scavenging.
7.What strategy has the government taken to eradicate manual scavenging?
A. Forming a task Force.
B. Comprehensive Rescue task
E. Comprehensive Rehabilitation
8.What can be inferred about the 1993 Manual Scavengers Act?
A. It aimed to malign the status of the manual scavenger.
B. It aimed to ensure the dignity, employment of the manual scavenger.
C. It aimed to condemn the societal pressure on manual scavenger.
D. It aimed to behold the social reputation of the manual scavenger.
E. It aimed to promote manual scavenging.
9.Choose a word opposite in meaning to the word ‘cognizable’ as used in the passage.
10.Choose a word that best illustrates the meaning of the phrase ‘double whammy’ .
A. A person guilty of two actions
B. An owner of 2 properties
C. A twofold success
D. A twofold setback
E. Double faced
Best Books for NABARD Grade A & B 2019
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Study Material for NABARD Grade A 2019
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