Major Land-forms in India: NCERT Summarized

There are several books in market providing different information on major land-forms in India. So we have decided to compile this topic from authentic source of reference for each exam i.e. NCERT.

In this article we have talked in details about mountain landform in coming articles this topic will be covered completely.

UPSC CSE topper’s geography notes for revision

Six Physiographic divisions:

  1. The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plain
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM

Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India?

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  1. Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas
  2. Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  3. Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  4. Arunachal Himalayas
  5. Eastern Hills and Mountains



Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif

They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.

Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.

Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.

In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun

Environment quiz-1

Environment quiz-2

Environment quiz-3

Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali
  • Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga
  • Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
  • Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand), Shivalik range
  • Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath,  Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)

Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet

The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.

Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota

Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KM

Inhabited with the Bhotia tribe. They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters.


Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.
  • Fast flowing rivers such as Tista
  • Peaks: Kanchenjunga
  • Tribe: Lepcha
  • Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.
  • Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world; second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world.>

Duar formations are peculiar to this region.


Arunachal Himalayas

  • From Bhutan Himalayas to Diphu pass in the east.
  • Direction: Southwest to Northeast
  • Peaks: Kangtu and Namya Barwa
  • Rivers: Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang and Lohit.

These rivers are perennial and have the highest hydro-electric power potential in the country.

Tribes: Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and Nagas

These communities practice shifting cultivation known as Jhumming.


Eastern Hills and Mountains

  • Direction: North to South
  • Ranges: Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo or Lushai hills
  • These are low hills
  • Tribes practice Jhum cultivation

Rivers: Barak. Most of the Nagaland rivers form a tributary of Brahmaputra. Rivers in eastern Manipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawady of Myanmar.

Lake: Loktak

Loktak Lake: is an important lake in Manipur which is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. Also called the only Floating Lake in the world due to floating masses of organic matter on it. It serves as a source for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply.

Keibul Kamjao National Park located in the Bishnupur district of Manipur is the only floating park in the world and is an integral part of the Loktak Lake. Home to the endangered Manipur Eld’s Deer or Brow-antlered Deer or Sangai or Dancing Deer.

Mizoram is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ which is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.


In Major Physiography Mountains part is complete.

we have come up with 6 articles which will cover every aspect of National parks

National Parks Part-1 National Parks Part-2
National Parks Part-3 National Parks Part-4
National Parks Part-5 National Parks Part-6


“Practice makes you perfect” mocks will lets you prepare more topics and by solving them you will be confident before entering in examination hall.

Geography quiz-1 Geography quiz-2
Geography quiz-3 Geography quiz-4
Geography quiz-5 Geography quiz-6
Geography quiz-7

Thank you and all the best.

Attempt Free Mock Tests & Get Free eBooks

SBI Clerk 2023 Free Mock Tests – Attempt Free Here
SBI PO Mains 2023 Free Mock Tests – Attempt Free Here
IBPS PO Mains 2023 Free Mock Tests – Attempt Free Here
Free Current Affairs Test & Monthly Free eBook 2023 – Click Here
Download Free Ixammr Exam Preparation App By Let’s Study Together (LST)