List of Nobel Prize Winners 2019
Complete List Nobel Prize Winners 2019 PDF. Complete List of Nobel Prize 2019 Winners (Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Peace, Literature). 2019 Nobel Prize Winners List. Nobel Prize Winners 2019 for Banking, SSC, Railway, PCS and UPSC Exams. If you are preparing for IBPS PO/Clerk, LIC Assistant, RBI Grade B, SSC, Railway and others competitive Exams, you may find some questions related to Nobel Prize Winners 2019. Questions based on Recent List of Nobel Prize Winners 2019 form a part of the General Awareness section of many competitive Exams.
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Complete List of Nobel Prize Winners 2019
The Nobel Prizes 2019 in various fields were announced in October 2019. Nobel Prizes are considered the most prestigious honor worldwide and the awards are conferred in December every year. Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.
|Physics||Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, Didier Queloz (Left to Right)
|For contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos.|
|Literature||For 2019- Peter Handke (Austrian writer)
|Peter Handke(2019): For an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.|
|Peace||Abiy Ahmed Ali (Prime Minister of Ethiopia)
|For his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea|
|Chemistry||John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino
|For the development of ‘lithium-ion‘ batteries|
|Physiology or Medicine||William G. Kaelin, Gregg L. Semenza, Peter J. Ratcliffe
|For their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.|
|Economics||Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer||For their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty|
Nobel Prize Winners 2019 – Physics
Nobel prize in physics awarded to cosmology and exoplanet researchers. James Peebles laid foundation for modern cosmology while Swiss pair found first exoplanet. Three scientists have been awarded the 2019 Nobel prize in physics for groundbreaking discoveries about the evolution of the universe and the Earth’s place within it. James Peebles, from Canada, has been awarded half of the 9m Swedish kronor (£740,000) prize for his theoretical discoveries about the evolution of the universe. The Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz share the other half of the prize for their discovery of the first planet beyond our solar system.
The 2019 Nobel prize for Physics was awarded to Swiss Scientists Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz and Canadian – American physicist James Peebles. One half of the prize was won by the American for his contribution towards “Theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”. The other half was shared between the Swiss scientists for their work on “Discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a star similar to sun”. The prize consists of 914,000 USD that will be split with one half to the American scientist and the other half to be shared between the Swiss scientists.
Nobel Prize Winners 2019 PDF – Chemistry
2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded for work that led to smartphone batteries. John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized the world of technology. The batteries power everyday products such as smartphones, laptops and even electric vehicles. “Through their work, this year’s Chemistry Laureates have laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil fuel-free society,” the Nobel Foundation said while announcing this year’s winners. John B. Goodenough was born in Germany in 1922 and is currently at the University of Texas in the US. M. Stanley Whittingham was born in 1941 in the UK and currently teaches at the Binghamton University in the US. Akira Yoshino was born in 1948 in Japan and is currently a professor at the Meijo University in Japan.
The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to John B Goodenough, M Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino for the development of lithium-ion batteries. These three scientists created the right conditions for a wireless and fossil fuel-free society.
Nobel Prize Winners 2019 PDF – Literature
2 Nobel literature prize winners expose Europe’s fault lines. The rare double announcement – with the 2018 prize going to Poland’s Olga Tokarczuk and the 2019 award to Austria’s Peter Handke – came after no literature prize was awarded last year due to sex abuse allegations that rocked the Swedish Academy, which awards the literature prize. Olga was born is a Polish writer, activist and public intellectual. She is a trained psychologist from the University of Warsaw. She has published poems, novels. Her books “Flights” won the Nike award. Nike Award is considered as one of hte top literary prizes of Poland. She had also won the German – Polish international Bridge prie for her accomplishments in promotion of peace and democratic development among the Europeans in different nations.
Peter is an Austrian novelist, translator and playwright. He has won several awards like International Ibsen award in 2014, Mulheimer Dramatikerpreis in 2012, Fraz Kafka PRize in 2009, etc. HE has also collaborated with directors and written scripts for movies like The Goalkeeper’s Fear of the Penalty, the wrong move, the left handed woman, the absence, etc. The rare double announcement — with the 2018 prize going to Poland’s Olga Tokarczuk and the 2019 award to Austria’s Peter Handke — came after no literature prize was awarded last year due to sex abuse allegations that rocked the Swedish Academy, which awards the literature prize.
***The Nobel prize of literature category was postponed last year due to a scandal.
Nobel Prize Winners 2019 PDF – Peace
One of the most famous awards is the Nobel Peace Prize, which was won this year by the Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. He won the award for promoting peace and ending a 20-year conflict with neighbouring African country, Eritrea. Some people thought that environmental activist Greta Thunberg might win the award this year. Previous winners of the Peace Prize include former US president Barack Obama and Malala Yousafzai, who was the youngest ever winner of a Nobel Prize. Award recognises efforts for peace, in particular in resolving Eritrea border conflict.
One of Abiy’s biggest achievements since coming to power in April last year was the peace deal signed three months later, which ended a nearly 20-year military stalemate with Eritrea following their 1998-2000 border war. Abiy has also pushed through reforms at home, dramatically changing the atmosphere in what was regarded as a repressive state. His public renunciation of past abuses drew a line between his administration and those of his predecessors, as did the appointment of former dissidents and large numbers of women to senior roles.
Ali became the Prime Minister of Ethiopia in 2018. Since then he was keen in resuming peace talks with Eritrea. He quickly worked out principles of peace agreement with the president of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki and ended the long “no peace no war” stalemate. Apart from this, he also initiated many reforms in Ethiopia. He spent his first 100 days of power in lifting the state of emergency in the country. He granted amnesty to 1000s of political prisoners, legalized outlawed opposition groups, discontinued media censorship, increased the influence of women in Ethiopian political and community life.
Nobel Prize Winners 2019– Physiology or Medicine
Oxygen-sensing cell discovery earns scientists 2019 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza for their work uncovering how cells sense and adapt to different oxygen levels. The discoveries have implications for how we understand and potentially treat a range of conditions like cancer, diabetes and coronary artery disease.
Nobel Medicine Prize 2019 for their work on how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability. The team revealed the understanding of how oxygen levels affect cellular metabolism. Kaelin works at Howard Hughes Medical Institute, US. Semenza is the director of Vascular Research program at Hopkins Institute of Cell Engineering. Ratcliffe is the director of Francis Crick Institute in London. The team identified the molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes to varying levels of oxygen. It has paved way to understand the strategies to fight cancer, anemia and other diseases. Based on their findings,many laboratories and pharmaceutical companies are now on the path of developing drugs that can interfere with disease states by activating or blocking the oxygen – level in the cells.
Nobel Prize Winners 2019 – Economics
This year’s Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences was won by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer. They won the award for their “experimental approach to alleviating global poverty” which has “great potential to further improve the lives of the worst-off people around the world”. For example, as a result of their work, more than five million Indian children have benefitted from tutoring programmes in schools.
Indian-American Abhijit Banerjee, his wife Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer jointly won the 2019 Nobel Economics Prize on Monday “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.” “The research conducted by this year’s Laureates has considerably improved our ability to fight global poverty. In just two decades, their new experiment-based approach has transformed development economics, which is now a flourishing field of research,” said the Nobel committee in a statement. Banerjee, 58, was educated at the University of Calcutta, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Harvard University, where he received his PhD in 1988.
The research of the Nobel Laureates has considerably improved the world’s ability to fight global poverty. The laureates bemoaned how the debates on poverty “tend to be fixated on the ‘big questions’: What is the ultimate cause of poverty? How much faith should we place in free markets? Is democracy good for the poor? Does foreign aid have a role to play? And so on”. They did not get stuck with these big questions. Instead, they emphasized on breaking down a problem, study its different aspects, conduct various experiments and, based on such “evidence”, decide what needs to be done. The laureates firmly believed that people have reduced the poor to caricatures without understanding the roots of their problems. Their study tries to unpack the problem and analyse each component scientifically and rigorously.
Indian Nobel Prize – Important Notes
- Till now, 12 Indians (5 Indian citizens and 7 of Indian origin or residency) have been awarded Nobel Prize
- The first person of Indian origin and also first Asian to be awarded the Nobel Prize was Rabindranath Tagore for his works “Gitanjali” in 1913.
- First Indian recipient of Nobel Prize in Physics was C. V. Raman for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him” in 1930.
- First Indian recipient of Nobel Prize for Peace was Mother Teresa in 1979.
- First Indian recipient of Nobel Prize in Economics was Amartya Sen in 1998.
- First Indian recipient of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was Har Gobind Khorana for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis in 1968.
- First Indian recipient of Nobel Prize in Chemistry was Venkatraman Ramakrishnan for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome in 2009.
- The only woman from India in the list of Nobel Prize recipient is Mother Teresa.
History of Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize Awards is one of the most prestigious Awards across the world which are presented in the different fields of academic, cultural or scientific advances. Every year person who do notable work in the fields of chemistry, medicine, economics, literature, physics, and bring peace in the world are awarded Nobel Prize. The foundation of Nobel Prize was laid by Alfred Nobel, on 27th November 1895. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist who invented Dynamite. He signed his last testimony and gave away a large share of his possession and fortunes to a series of prizes in the fields of literature, physics, chemistry, physiology and peace. A 6th prize, in economics, was established in 1968 by Sveriges Riksbank (the Swedish central bank) and is known as the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in the year 1901, which is five years after Nobel Alfred’s death.
- Annual awards are given in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, and Economics.
- First established in 1895 at the will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel.
- All the Prize except Peace Prize awarded in Stockholm, Sweden.
- Peace Prize awarded in Oslo, Norway.
- The Prize is not awarded posthumously.
- The Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry, Economic and Science presented by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
- The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is presented by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute.
- The Nobel Prize for Literature presented by the Swedish Academy.
- The Nobel Prize in Peace presented by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
- Youngest Nobel Laureate (17-years): Malala Yousafzai for Peace in 2014.
- Oldest Nobel Laureate (97-years): John B. Goodenough for Chemistry in 2019.
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