Land forms in India Part-2
Major Land-forms in India part one has been published earlier in which we have talked about Northern Mountains in India.
You can see Major Land-forms in India Part-1 here.
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The Northern Plains
Formed by the alluvial deposits of rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
Length: 3200 KM; Width: 150-300 KM
Three main zones:
- Alluvial Plains (Khadar and Bangar)
- Narrow belt. 8-10 KM wide.
- Paralllel to Shivalik at the break-up of the slope. Hence, streams and rivers deposit heavy rocks (and at times disappear) in this zone.
- South of Bhabar. 10-20 KM wide.
- Rivers re-emerge and create marshy and swampy conditions known as Tarai.
- South of Tarai.
- Features of mature stage of fluvial erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, ox-bow lakes and braided channels. Riverine islands in Brahmaputra.
- Brahmaputra takes a turn an almost 90 degree turn at Dhubri (Assam) before entering Bangladesh.
UPSC CSE topper’s geography notes for revision-see Here
- Bounded by the Delhi ridge, Rajmahal Hills, Gir range and Cardamom hills.
- Made up of a series of patland plateaus: Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi, Malwa, Coimbatore, Karnataka etc.
- One of the oldest and most stable landmass of India.
Physiographic Features: Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, hummocky hills and quartzite dykes offering natural sites for water storage.
Black soil in western and northwestern parts.
Bhima fault in this region has frequent seismic activity (Lathur earthquake)
NW part also has ravines and gorges: Chambal, Bhind and Morena.
Three broad regions:
- Deccan Plateau
- Central Highlands
- Northwestern Plateau
- Bordered by Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills
- Important ranges: WG: Sahyadri, Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Caradamom hills; EG: Javadi hills, Palconda range, Nallamala Hills, Mahendragiri hills
- EG and WG meet at Nilgiri hills.
- Highest peak: Anaimudi (2695 m) on Anaimalai hills; Dodabetta (2637 m) on Nilgiri hills.
- Rivers: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.
- Bounded by the Aravali and Satpura range.
- Relic mountains, highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
- Near Jaisalmer it is covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.
- Elevation: 700-1000 m
- Banas, a tributary of Chambal, originates in the Aravalli. Other tributaries of Yamuna originate from the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
- Minerals in Chotanagpur plateau.
- Extension of the main Peninsular plateau.
- Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau.
- Megahalaya plateau: Garo hills, Khasi hills and Jaintia hills (named after the tribals inhabiting the region)
- Rich in minerals like coal, iron, sillimanite, limestone and uranium.
- Receives maximum rainfall from SW monsoon. Hence, Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapuni and Myswarnam.
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- Northwest of the Aravali hills
- Dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
- Low rainfall: >150 mm per year Low vegetation cover
- Evidence that this area was under the sea during the Mesozoic era.
- Features: mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
- Rivers are ephemeral: Luni. Brackish lakes. Inland drainage.
- Western coastal plains
- Eastern Coastal Plains
Western Coastal Plains
- Submerged coastal plain. Hence, a narrow belt. Narrow in middle and broader towards north and south.
- Ports: Provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours due to submergence. Kandla, Mazagaon (Mumbai), JLN port Navha Sheva, Maramagao, Mangalore, Cochin etc.
- Mumbai has the world’s largest natural harbour.
- May be divided into: Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast, Goan coast and Malabar coast.
- Rivers don’t form delta.
- Kayals (Backwaters): Found in the Malabar coast. Used for fishing and inland navigation. Every year Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala.
Eastern Coastal Plains
- Emergent coast. Hence, less number of ports and harbours. Chennai, Vizag, Paradwip, Haldia.
- Delta formation
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Two major Divisions:
- Andaman and Nicobar
- Lakshwadeep & Minicoy
Andaman and Nicobar
- Two major island groups: Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island.
- The group is divided into: Andaman in the North and Nicobar in the South.
- Andaman and Nicobar separated by the Ten Degree channel.
- Barren Island
- Peaks: Saddle Peak (N.Andaman – 738 m), Mt. Diavolo (Middle Andaman – 515 m), Mt. Koyob (S Andaman – 460 m) and Mt. Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m)
- Coral deposits found
Convectional rainfalls and equatorial type of vegetation.
- Lakshadweep and Minicoy
- Entire group built of coral deposits.
- Total of 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.
- Smallest UT
- Minicoy is the largest island
- Separated by the 9 Degree Channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south Canannore island.
These islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders.
we have come up with 6 articles which will cover every aspect of National parks
|National Parks Part-1||National Parks Part-2|
|National Parks Part-3||National Parks Part-4|
|National Parks Part-5||National Parks Part-6|
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