Land forms in India Part-2

0

Land forms in India Part-2

Major Land-forms in India part one has been published earlier in which we have talked about Northern Mountains in India.

You can see Major Land-forms in India Part-1 here.

Important Topics in World geography previously published can be seen here-

Agro-Climatic regions of IndiaLocations and Positions of Earth

Earth and Solar System

All about Moon

Atmosphere: All you need to know

Insolation, Heat budget and temperature distribution

The Northern Plains

Formed by the alluvial deposits of rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.

Length: 3200 KM; Width: 150-300 KM

Three main zones:

  1. Bhabar
  2. Tarai
  3. Alluvial Plains (Khadar and Bangar)

Bhabar

  • Narrow belt. 8-10 KM wide.
  • Paralllel to Shivalik at the break-up of the slope. Hence, streams and rivers deposit heavy rocks (and at times disappear) in this zone.

Tarai

  • South of Bhabar. 10-20 KM wide.
  • Rivers re-emerge and create marshy and swampy conditions known as Tarai.

Alluvial Belt

  • South of Tarai.
  • Features of mature stage of fluvial erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, ox-bow lakes and braided channels. Riverine islands in Brahmaputra.
  • Brahmaputra takes a turn an almost 90 degree turn at Dhubri (Assam) before entering Bangladesh.

UPSC CSE topper’s geography notes for revision-see Here

Peninsular Plateau

  • Bounded by the Delhi ridge, Rajmahal Hills, Gir range and Cardamom hills.
  • Made up of a series of patland plateaus: Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi, Malwa, Coimbatore, Karnataka etc.
  • One of the oldest and most stable landmass of India.

Rivers?

Physiographic Features: Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, hummocky hills and quartzite dykes offering natural sites for water storage.

Black soil in western and northwestern parts.

Bhima fault in this region has frequent seismic activity (Lathur earthquake)

NW part also has ravines and gorges: Chambal, Bhind and Morena.

Three broad regions:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Highlands
  3. Northwestern Plateau

Deccan Plateau

  • Bordered by Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills
  • Important ranges: WG: Sahyadri, Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Caradamom hills; EG: Javadi hills, Palconda range, Nallamala Hills, Mahendragiri hills
  • EG and WG meet at Nilgiri hills.
  • Highest peak: Anaimudi (2695 m) on Anaimalai hills; Dodabetta (2637 m) on Nilgiri hills.
  • Rivers: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.

Central Highlands

  •  Bounded by the Aravali and Satpura range.
  • Relic mountains, highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
  • Near Jaisalmer it is covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.
  • Elevation: 700-1000 m
  • Banas, a tributary of Chambal, originates in the Aravalli. Other tributaries of Yamuna originate from the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
  • Minerals in Chotanagpur plateau.

 

Northeastern Plateau

  • Extension of the main Peninsular plateau.
  • Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau.
  • Megahalaya plateau: Garo hills, Khasi hills and Jaintia hills (named after the tribals inhabiting the region)
  • Rich in minerals like coal, iron, sillimanite, limestone and uranium.
  • Receives maximum rainfall from SW monsoon.  Hence, Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapuni and Myswarnam.

we have come up with concise and must notes.

Environmental treaties you must read Important environment organization and conservation program

Indian Desert

Aka Marusthali

  • Northwest of the Aravali hills
  • Dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
  • Low rainfall: >150 mm per year                                  Low vegetation cover
  • Evidence that this area was under the sea during the Mesozoic era.
  • Features: mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
  • Rivers are ephemeral: Luni.                         Brackish lakes. Inland drainage.

 

Coastal Plains

Two divisions:

  1. Western coastal plains
  2. Eastern Coastal Plains

Western Coastal Plains

  • Submerged coastal plain. Hence, a narrow belt. Narrow in middle and broader towards north and south.
  • Ports: Provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours due to submergence. Kandla, Mazagaon (Mumbai), JLN port Navha Sheva, Maramagao, Mangalore, Cochin etc.
  • Mumbai has the world’s largest natural harbour.
  • May be divided into: Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast, Goan coast and Malabar coast.
  • Rivers don’t form delta.
  • Kayals (Backwaters): Found in the Malabar coast. Used for fishing and inland navigation. Every year Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala.

Eastern Coastal Plains

  • Broader
  • Emergent coast. Hence, less number of ports and harbours. Chennai, Vizag, Paradwip, Haldia.
  • Delta formation

There are many topics which carries much value than others so we have compiled some of the article to create an edge for you.

Ports in India Nuclear power Plants in India
National Highways Environment quiz-1

The Islands

Two major Divisions:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar
  2. Lakshwadeep & Minicoy

 

Andaman and Nicobar

  • Two major island groups: Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island.
  • The group is divided into: Andaman in the North and Nicobar in the South.
  • Andaman and Nicobar separated by the Ten Degree channel.
  • Barren Island
  • Peaks: Saddle Peak (N.Andaman – 738 m), Mt. Diavolo (Middle Andaman – 515 m), Mt. Koyob (S Andaman – 460 m) and Mt. Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m)
  • Coral deposits found

Convectional rainfalls and equatorial type of vegetation.

  • Lakshadweep and Minicoy
  • Entire group built of coral deposits.
  • Total of 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.
  • Smallest UT
  • Minicoy is the largest island
  • Separated by the 9 Degree Channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south Canannore island.

These islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders.

we have come up with 6 articles which will cover every aspect of National parks

National Parks Part-1 National Parks Part-2
National Parks Part-3 National Parks Part-4
National Parks Part-5 National Parks Part-6

Thank you and all the best.