Indian Polity for Government Exams: Judiciary and Tax System in India

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Indian Polity for Exams:

For more you may also like:Making of the Constitution

Supreme Court and High Court:

  Supreme Court High Court
Appointment of Judges A distinguished jurist can be appointed a judge Constitution does not make provision for appointment of a distinguished jurist
Tenure of judges Till 65 Till 62
Jurisdiction Jurisdiction cannot be curtained as mentioned in the constitution. Other jurisdiction and powers can be changed by the Parliament. Ditto. Other jurisdiction and powers can be changed by both the Parliament and the State legislature.
Original jurisdiction In matters relating disputes between center and states or between states Some imp:

1.Disputes relating to the election of members of Parliament and state legislatures

Writ Jurisdiction Can issue only for enforcement of fundamental rights Can issue for fundamental rights and for any other purpose

 

You may also see this:- Governor, Parliament, Attorney General, Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha

Taxes

  Levied Collected Appropriated Example
1. Centre State State Stamp duty on some bills of exchange, Excise duty on some medicinal prep containing alcohol
2. Centre Centre + State Centre + State Service Tax (88th amendment. Rule of appropriation decided by the Parliament)
3. Centre Centre State Some taxes on inter-state trade
4. Centre Centre Centre+ State All other taxes expect those mentioned above and below (division decided by the FC)
5. State State State Wealth, Sales, some excise etc
6. Centre Centre Centre Surcharges on taxes referred to 3 and 4
GST Centre   Centre Centre GST ,state GST and Interstate GST

You should also see:- Constitutional and Statutory Bodies

Grants in aid

  • Statutory grants on the recommendation of the FC. There are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India every year
  • Discretionary grants on the recommendation of the Planning Commission
  • These days discretionary grants > statutory grants

Charged expenditure

  • CAG
  • UPSC

CG, Jharkhand, MP and Orissa have to have a minister for tribal affairs.

Practice mock test here

Posts

Post Appointment Removal
State Public Service Commission Governor President
HC Judge President in consultation with the CJI and the governor of the state Same as SC judges

See here- Top frequently asked Polity Questions

Thank you and All the best

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