Medieval India: Deccan, Sikhs, Marathas, Sufism and Mughal Art& Architecture

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Medieval India:

Read notes published before here:-

Dynasties during 8 to 10 century 

Delhi sultanate 

After Aurangzeb India in 18th century

India after decline of mughals

Sikh and Marathas after Mughals

 

 

Deccan

  • Ahmednagar was captured by the Mughals in 1600. Chand Bibi was defeated.
  • Malik Amber of Berar was an obstacle. So was Ibrahim Adil Shah of Bijapur
  • Ibrahim Adil Shah II
    • Aka Abla Baba and Jagat Guru
    • Book – Kitab-i-Nauras on Music
    • New Capital: Nauraspur
    • Gol Gumbaj – his mausoleum
    • Ibrahim Rauza
  • Golconda: Md Quli Qutub Shah
    • Char Minar

Sikhs

  • Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded by Aurangzeb
  • 1699: Khalsa was established by Guru Gobind Singh

Marathas1665:

Treaty of Purandar – between Shivaji and Jai Singh (on behalf of Aurangzeb)

  • 1666: Shivaji escaped from Azeb’s detetion
  • 1674: Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh
  • Assumed the title of ‘Haindava Dharmoddharak’
  • Died in 1680

Architecture

  • Qutab Minar
    • Built by Iltutmish (started by Aibak)
    • Dedicated to the Sufi saint Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki
  • Alauddin
    • added an arch – Alai Darwaza – to Qutub Minar
    • City: Siri
    • Haus Khas
  • Tughlaqs
    • Built Tughlaqabad
    • Feature: Sloping walls
    • Firuz Shah Kotla
  • Lodis
    • Built on platforms
    • Lodi Garden

Mughal Art and Architecture

  • Pietra dura: decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones
  • Akbar
    • Agra Fort
    • Fatehpur Sikri; Buland Darwaza was built to commemorate Akbar’s victory in Gujarat
    • Gujrat style of architecture was used
    • Painters: Daswant and Basawan
    • European painting was introduced
    • Litterateurs: Abul Fazl and Faizi; Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanah; Tulsidas
    • Marathi: Eknath and Tukaram
  • Shah Jahan
    • Red Fort, Delhi
    • Moti Masjid at Agra Fort
    • Jama Masjid, Delhi
  • Jahangir
    • Great patron of painting
    • Portrait painting and painting of animals
    • Painter: Mansur
  • Major schools of paintings during Mughal time
    • Rajasthan style
    • Pahari school
  • Largest number of books on classical Indian music in Persian were written during Aurangzeb’s reign

Sufi Movement

  • Organised into 12 orders or silsilahs
  • Orders broadly divided into two
    • Ba-shara
    • Be-shara
  • Early sufis: Rabia, Mansur bin Hallaj, Al Ghazzali
  • Yogic book, Amrit Kund, was translated into Persian from Sanskrit
  • Ba-shara
    • Chisti and Suharwardi silsilah
  • Chisti order
    • Established by Moinuddin Chishti
    • Bakhtiyar Kaki, Farid ud din Ganj-i-Shakau, Nizamuddin Aulia, Nasirudding Chiragh-i-Delhi
    • Believed in fakiri (poverty).
  • Suharwardi
    • Largely confined to Punjab and Multan
    • Shaikh Shihabuddin Suharwardi and Hamid-ud-Din Nagori
    • Did not believe in fakiri. Accepted the service of the state.
  • Other important sufi
    • Gesu Daraz

Bhakti Movement

  • Nath Panti movement challenged the caste system

Thank you and all the best

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