Culture Revision Notes: Major Painting Schools

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 Culture Revision Notes: 

See Handwritten Art&Culture Notes for  revision.

Different schools of art compared

Table 1

  Mughal Pahari Rajasthani/Rajput
Origin Earlier Persian blend. Became Indian under Akbar. Originated in the sub-Himalayan kingdoms of 19th century. Early 16th century. Various sub-schools existed
Type Mostly in miniature form Mostly done in miniature form  
Themes Document of life at the Mughal court, battles, hunt, arrival of embassies, festivities

 

Portrait paintings developed under Jahangir

Love of man for woman. Symbolised by Krishna and Radha Strongly influenced by the contemporary literary and musical forms, and draw upon their motifs

 

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Characteristics Realism is the keynote of this style

 

Artists had made contacts with Western art. Influence can be seen.

Bold and intense – Basohli

Delicate and lyrical; Tones subdued and lines exquisitely fine – Kangra

Decorate in their composition and colour scheme

 

Landscape lacks the naturalism of the Mughal school

 

Technique     Used wider canvas
Major Artists Basawan, Daswanth, Kesudasa, Mansur    
Major Works Akbarnama illustrations; rare birds and animals – Falcon (CS Museum, Bombay), Red Blossoms – floral painting   Jodhpur and Nagaur paintings.
Major schools   Basohli, Guler, Kangra Malwa, Mewar (Ragamala paintings), Marwar, Kishangarh, Jaipur, Bundi, Kotah
Patrons Akbar, Jahangir Raja Kripal Singh (Bahsoli)  

 

See Ancient Indian Architecture here

Table-2

  Madhubani/Mithila Manjusha/Angika Tanjore
Origin Done traditionally by the women in the villages near the town of Madhubani. It originated as floor and wall paintings.

 

Essentially a folk tradition

  17th century under the patronage of Tanjore’s Maratha rulers
Themes Nature and Hindu religious motifs   Usually portrayed deities. Vishnu,Shiva and Krishna
Exceptional Point Was originally practiced by Brahmins and Kayasthas. Later SC women also adopted it. But the themes of the two are different. While higher castes depicted mythological themes, SCs experimented with day-to-day scenes.    
Characteristics Two dimensional imagery. Colors derived from plants.

 

No space is left empty. Gaps are filled by painting flowers, plants animals and even geometric shapes.

Snakes are a prominent feature Artists adhered strictly to iconography as these paintings were made for ritual and worship and not for display as is mostly the case today.
Technique Traditionally done as murals on mud walls. Now is also done one cloth, paper and canvas   Made on jackwood pasted with unbleached cloth to which a mixture of limestone, chalk powder, gum and honey are applied in layers on a sketch of the icon. Extra coats given to raise some parts of the painting. Jewellery etc are put.
Major Artists Jagdamba Devi, Mahasundari Devi    
Major schools Bharni style, Kachni style    
Patrons     Sarabhiji 2, Shivaji 2, Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar

 

Rajasthani Art Schools

Mewar (Ragamala)

  • themes from the life of Krishna and his frolic with the gopis; heroes and heroines of Hindi poetry.
  • Scenes from Bhagvata and Ramayana
  • Landscape lacks the naturalism of the Mughal school

Marwar

  • Genuine Rajput style evolved under this school
  • Equestrian portraits of the royal house and the nobility.
  • Show bold types of expression with broad, fish eyes in human faces
  • This school is essentially Hindu

Jaipur

  • Raslila was painted. It became ‘an earthly erotic amusement’

 

Manjusha Art

  • Manjushas are temple shaped boxes containing eight pillars
  • The boxes often contain the paintings of gods, goddesses and other characters
  • The boxes are used in Bishahari Puja
  • This is practiced in the Bhagalpur region of Bihar

 

You may also see- Literature and Art in Medieval Indian History

Handicrafts

  • Channapatna toys
    • Wooden toys from Karnataka
  • Nirmal Toys
    • Wooden toys made in the town of Nirmal in Adilabad district
  • Tanjore doll
    • Bobblehead made of terracotta

Sand painting

Kolam

  • Drawn using rice powder by female members in front of their home
  • Mainly in South India

Rangoli

  • North India. Using sand colors, flour or flowers

 

Other fine arts

  • Mehandi
  • Pichhwai
    • Intricate paintings that portray Lord Krishna
    • Exist in the town of nathdwara in Rajasthan
  • Tarakashi
    • A type of metalwork from Cuttack

See Delhi Sultanate here 

Indian Art Awards

  • Kalaimamani
    • By Tamil Nadu Iyal Isai Nataka Manram
  • Kalidas Samman
    • Presented by the MP govt
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi Award
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship
  • Shilp Guru
    • By GOI to a master craftsperson. Started in 2002.
  • Tulsi Samman
    • By MP govt. In fields of art, theatre, dance and music.
  • Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award
    • By Karnataka govt for excellence in painting

Culture Revision Notes Here include major Paintings only.

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